Hey, what's missing from the Santa Rosa newspapers? After 1911, readers no longer saw a steady stream of articles reporting children involved in armed robbery, arson, burglary,  buggy hijacking, and that old favorite, chicken snatching. I loved writing up those stories, relishing the thought of a great-great grandchild of some distinguished judge or senator stumbling across the news of his arrest for leading a gang of ten year-old chicken thieves.

This is a followup to a piece from a while back, "THE VANISHING HOOLIGAN" which described a drop off of kiddie krime stories during 1912. I presumed it was a fluke and the boys would be soon back to no good, such as shooting at men's hats with air guns and rolling drunks for their pocket change. But their shockingly good behavior extended through 1913 - and a scan of papers in the years immediately following suggests it endured.

What went right? The Hooligan article weighs several possible reasons. There may have been less crime to report - or maybe there was just less crime being reported.

One change was the creation of the Juvenile Court (also discussed in Hooligan) which aimed to punish kids with probation rather than jail. The papers rarely mentioned the names of the wrongdoers or their crimes; one of the papers in 1916 summarized a court docket of "thieving, waywardness of other descriptions, intemperance and the like." Even the number of cases heard was unclear - it appears there were about twenty in 1913, which is on par with the incidents reported in the bad ol' days. The difference was that the papers were no longer calling out kids as young as ten as incorrigibles or damning an eight year-old as a "hardened little criminal.”.

The most serious misdeed of 1913 was 16 year-old William Marsh trying to derail a passenger train by piling railroad ties and rocks on the tracks. A workcrew spotted and removed the obstructions so no harm was done and the boy was identified and arrested later that day, but not before there were "a number of sensational rumors about town" about the attempt to cause a crash. Still, Marsh got off with probation; in 1908, before the Juvenile Court was formed, an 11 year-old was carted off to reform school for trying the same stunt.

But if there's a children's theme to be found for those years it's this: Adults increasingly refused to cut them any slack. A farmer near Guerneville “peppered” three boys with his shotgun while they were raiding his orchard, hitting one of the boys in the face (the farmer was fined $40). Another trio was caught stealing from a watermelon patch south of Santa Rosa. The owner must have roughed up the kids because the grandfather of one of the boys came over and beat him soundly, breaking his jaw in two places (gramps was sued for $10,500, paying only $682).

Even Hallowe'en, earlier tolerated even though it was all trick and no treat, faced a crackdown. The Santa Rosa Republican called for an end of "this old license for mischief" and suggested "parental floggings" were in order. Petaluma went further and declared "no noise will be tolerated" and there would be "special officers in plain clothes and bicycle police" on patrol that night. Oh, to have a "Petaluma Hallowe'en Special Officer" badge.

The greatest change, however, was strict enforcement of a 9PM curfew for anyone under 18 years of age found outdoors. Santa Rosa was fairly liberal in allowing kids out that late - Napa and some other cities had 8 o'clock ordinances - but the police here brooked no tolerance for violation. Where other youths caught afoot were ordered to go home, Santa Rosa police threw them in jail for the night.

(When the curfew was discussed back in 1908, a Santa Rosa City Council meeting dissolved into pandemonium over who would have the great honor of ringing the curfew bell, thanks to gooey memories of a sentimental Victorian-era poem they all had to apparently memorize in school. It’s always disheartening to find your elected officials acting like weepy drunks, as I wrote at the time.)

A final incident from 1913 was more cute than criminal. A fire alarm sounded and in those days the volunteer firemen were alerted to the location of the blaze by a sort-of morse code blasted out by the big whistle at the fire department. Unfortunately this happened just as the schools were getting out and you can bet every kid in town knew the codes by heart. They swarmed to the site to watch the firemen in action, so many they "literally blocked College avenue," according to the Press Democrat. Unfortunately, that meant the hose wagon could not get through and had to go around the block.

The fire was not serious but the PD was apoplectic; parents would be responsible if the building had burned down because they did not teach their young'uns to keep out of the street. Like the "parental floggings" remark in the other paper, it was unnecessary moralizing, but probably caused a few breakfast table confrontations the next morning:

"Earl, were you out there on College avenue blocking the firemen?"

"Oh, no, maw, I'm a good boy," he replied, tucking his legs under the table with his shoes and stockings still curiously damp despite the dry weather.

Cartoon from the Santa Rosa Republican, Aug. 30, 1913


Tonight will be Hallowe'en and Chief of Police Edward A. Husler gives warning that Hallowe'en "pranks" which have heretofore been permitted almost unchecked, will not be tolerated in this city this year. The curfew hours will be enforced as usual and no youngsters below the local age will be allowed out after the curfew hour.

Special officers in plain clothes and bicycle police will patrol the residence section of the city. No noise will be tolerated as there as yet many sufferers from the recent accident who must not be disturbed, while no defacing of public or private property, stealing of gates or removal of portable property or use of paint will be allowed. Last year the usual privileges were abused so that this year they will be taken away entirely. Nobody will be excused and all violators of the ordinances or laws will be rigidly enforced. This means everybody.
- Petaluma Argus-Courier, October 31, 1912


Napa — Henceforth the fire bell will not toll the curfew warning to the younger generation of the city. Instead the street lights of the city will blink the warning. The City Council last night perfected an agreement with the Pacific Gas & Electric Company and with the Great Western Power Company, both operating here, whereby they will "blink" the lights controlled by each at 8 o’clock as a curfew warning. It was decided that the tones of the fire bell could not be heard clearly enough over the city.
- Press Democrat, January 9 1913


Officer Miller arrested two runaway boys Friday morning who were later turned over to the Petaluma officers. The lads gave the names of Albert De Gregorio of Richmond, and Raphael Custodlo of San Francisco.

Officer Findley found the boys on Thursday night roaming the streets, and he took them to the city jail where they were given a night’s lodging. They told a straight story, apparently, and nothing was suspected. They were released on Friday morning, and were walking away when Officer Miller noticed that one of the boys had a streak of mud spattered on his back as if he had been riding a wheel. He called the boys back and after questioning them learned that they had stolen two wheels in Petaluma.

Chief Hustler of that city was notified and he came to Santa Rosa and took the boys back. The wheels were found near the railroad crossing at Third street.
- Press Democrat, January 18 1913

A Wagon Load of Loot Valued at $300 Recovered Which Had Been Stolen From Many Homes

The police of Petaluma arrested two boys, Andrew Anderson and Henry Ceresa. aged seventeen and fifteen years respectively, Saturday, and have put a stop to the numerous petty thefts which have been troubling the officers of the Egg City for some time past. Loot to the value of about $300 was recovered after the boys had broken down and made a full confession.

The lads are the sons of workingmen of Petaluma, and their families have always borne the best of reputations. A long list of Petaluma houses were Included in the places which the boys confessed to have robbed. The loot recovered filled a good sized wagon. The officers searched the homes of the boys while neither the lads nor the families were aware of the move.
- Press Democrat, January 19 1913


When the fire alarm was sounded on Thursday afternoon a crowd of little children just from school rushed to the scene and literally blocked College avenue. James F. Birch, driving the hose wagon, had to go entirely around the block, thus losing valuable time, or endanger the lives of the little ones who could not get out of the way if they had been ordered to move on. Parents are directly interested in teaching their children to keep out of the streets and on the sidewalks, because such a delay might cause them personal loss any day. A delay of three or four minutes at the early stages of a fire after converts a small blaze into a conflagration. The drivers of fire apparatus have other things to look out for besides irresponsible children and even grown folks who have no excuse but their curiosity for hampering and delaying the work of the department.

If an accident occurred the blame would of course be applied to the firemen whereas the parents are the ones at fault. Grown people who get in the way of apparatuses and firemen in the discharge of their duties must stand consequences and have no redress if they are maimed or hurt.
- Santa Rosa Republican,  May 23, 1913

Boys Guilty of Misconduct on the Tennis Courts Here— Watch Appointed

Complaint is made of vandalism perpetrated by mischievous boys and youths in the club house at the tennis courts. It seems hard to believe that they should so far forget themselves as to commit the depredations charged. Not only have they broken all the windows in the club house but they have damaged the contents and have scattered things in every direction and have been guilty of other disgusting conduct committed after the place had been cleaned up for the opening of the tennis season next Friday.

The officers and members of the club are determined to put a stop to the conduct complained of, even if it comes to the exposure and arrest of the guilty ones. The acts complained of have been going on for some time and must be stopped. It will go hard with the boys it they are caught, and a watch will be set in the endeavor to bring this about. The club is already in the possession of information that may get someone into trouble.
- Press Democrat,  May 28 1913

Ejected From Train He Attempts to Retaliate Places Ties and Rocks on the Track Near Healdsburg on Saturday Morning, But Plan Is Foiled by Section Men

Beset with a spirit of revenge and retaliation because he had been put off a train at Grants station, near Healdsburg, Saturday morning, and thus being compelled to walk twelve miles to Santa Rosa. William Marsh, a youth who recently came to this city from Ogden with his relatives, placed ties and boulders across the rails In two dangerous cuts on the railroad near Grants or "Toolhouse Crossing" and the Sotoyome district schoolhouse. The obstructions were put In as likely places as possible to cause a wreck, but the chances are the youth selected them because ho could carry out his little plan without being seen at work.

Fortunately, about three-quarters of an hour before the Ukiah express, which leaves Santa Rosa at 10:07, was due to pass, section men came along and removed the obstructions and thus prevented what might have been a most dangerous wreck attended with loss of life.

A good description was given of a youth who had been seen walking along the track In the vicinity of the attempted wreck, and word was sent to the sheriffs office here, and Deputy Sheriff C. A. Reynolds of this city and Deputy Sheriff Ben H. Barnes of Healdsburg were detailed on the case to watch both ends of the line. Saturday afternoon, Deputy Sheriff Reynolds, after his return to town, arrested Marsh in this city.

From Deputy Sheriff Reynolds It was learned that the statement given above regarding retaliation for being put off the train, as the motive for his act, was made when he arrested Marsh. Marsh bought a return ticket for Healdsburg to attend the carnival there on the Fourth. He did not come back on Friday night and was on his way home Saturday morning with the return half of the ticket as his passport, when, he says, he was put off at Grants and told the ticket was no good. Marsh told the officer he was sixteen years old and that he had no idea of the seriousness that might follow his act.

There were a number of sensational rumors about town Saturday morning and afternoon regarding the attempted wreck.
- Press Democrat, July 6 1913

Arrests Follow Attack
R. H. Shafer was arrested Sunday and put up $25 cash bail to answer a charge of battery growing out of the defense of his grandson, Frei Shafer, and two other boys, Harold Carlson and "John Doe" Johnson, whom it is alleged, robbed the watermelon patch of R. L. Lowrey. The boys were also arrested, charged with petit larceny in stealing melons from Lowrey.

Lowrey is at the Santa Rosa hospital. where he is suffering from a broken jaw and a badly cut and bruised face as the result of R. H. Shafer’s attack on him Sunday. The case will be heard in the Justice court as soon as Lowrey is able to appear in court.
- Press Democrat, September 3 1913

All Boys and Girls Under 18 Years Are Under Provisions of New Ordinance in Effect

The new curfew ordinance went into effect Monday and the big bell rang at 9 o'clock instead of 8:30 as in past years. The change was noticed by many on the street as the bell ringing at 9 was something out of the ordinary. All boys and girls under 18 years of age are affected by the new ordinance and the police have been directed to strictly enforce its terms. Only those accompanied by parent or guardian escort who are responsible for them are entitled to be on the street after 9 o’clock.
- Press Democrat, October 14 1913


The first arrest under the new “curfew” ordinance, which provides that boys and girls under eighteen years of age, unless accompanied by parent or guardian or proper escort, must leave the streets for home when the big bell of the fire department taps at nine o’clock, was made last night by Officer Raegan. He landed two boys In the new city jail and locked them up for the night. They occupied one of the new cells, equipped with new beds, there to remain until 8 o’clock this morning.

The youngsters had been cautioned on previous occasions by the officer against hanging around town after the curfew had sounded, and parental warning also apparently had no effect. Tears and protestations did not avail when the officer nabbed them and in a short time they realized that they were really in the lockup as a result of their disobedience.

Parents can assist the officers in the enforcement of the new ordinance, for it is going to be enforced. Under the provision* of the ordinance the youngsters picked up by the police must remain in the lockup until the next morning. A number of fathers and mothers have expressed themselves as being pleased with the adoption of the ordinance and have expressed a willingness that their boys or girls who are found down town or abroad in the streets anywhere without proper escort, such as parent or properly deputized guardian, after 9 o’clock, shall be taken in charge. The ordinance is for the benefit of the youngsters and similar provisions are now being enforced in other cities and towns. Both boys arrested last night were several years under the age of eighteen In the enforcement of the new law, it can also be stated, it will be no respecter of persons and applies to all alike.

Mention of the detention of these boys last night is made mainly for the purpose of calling attention to the fact that it is the purpose to enforce the ordinance.
- Press Democrat, November 15 1913


Thursday night, during the darkness of the two "dead" lighting systems, several squads of boys, in the spirit of those small deviltries prevalent at the all Hallowe'en period, worked their silly but annoying pranks. Loose planks and other obstructions were piled on porches of residences and the iron covers of water meter boxes were removed and placed where they could mostly disturb the residenters [sic]. Handfuls of mud in some places were thrown against front windows. It is deplorable that the curfew ordinance cannot suppress this form of nuisance, and that some of the prankish brats cannot be caught and punished. A lady returning from the reception in the darkness stumbled over one of those obstructions and was thrown down, soiling her clothing and causing her no little annoyance. This childish work under the overdone practice of all Hallowe'en jokes may be an inspiration for callow cartoonists and a theme for student humorists, but it is a nuisance to the victims. This old license for mischief should be recalled and a few parental floggings--an almost lost practice and art in this country--should be applied where they will do the most good.
-Santa Rosa Republican,  October 31, 1913


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