When setting the dial on your time machine, there were few better years to be in Santa Rosa than 1911. Yeah, it wasn't that long ago I said the same thing about 1910, but I was young and ignorant back then, eight months ago.

This was the year Santa Rosa finally was catching up to Bay Area cities; downtown was looking more cosmopolitan with its paved streets, electric signs and several vaudeville and movie theaters. We were even in the movies; the popular Essanay Film Company came to Santa Rosa and shot a few scenes in town, including a chase down Fourth street. There were car ads in nearly every edition of the Press Democrat and autos or motorcycles were everywhere, thanks in great part to the new option of buying on credit.

The big event of 1911 was Fred J. Wiseman's flight from Petaluma to Santa Rosa. Decades later we found out it was kinda historic, but at the time everyone was cranked up for three days waiting to hear the factory whistles, bells, and "succession of bomb explosions" which would cue them to dash quickly outside in hopes of a glimpse of Wiseman soaring over downtown. He actually crashed outside city limits, of course, but it was still exciting that he almost made it. And then there was the enjoyment of reading the juvenile (but hilarious!) squabbling between the editors of the two papers over which of them liked Fred best.

This was also the year when (male) voters would decide whether women had a right to vote, and two of the most prominent fighters on both sides were in the North Bay. Passage was by no means assured; passions ran high for months as both sides tried to persuade the public it was the right thing to do – or that it would lead to the end of civilization. Before it came down to the nail-biting vote, Sonoma County and the entire Bay Area had been blanketed with banners, posters, leaflets and postcards from the suffragists and the "anti's."

On the seamier side, Santa Rosa was mesmerized by two big events. The year began with the jury verdict in the Burke trial, where an esteemed local physician and health spa owner was charged with trying to kill his mistress and infant son with dynamite. And in late autumn, there was a terrible scandal that involved poison pen letters and a prominent women's social club acting as vigilantes. Although both local papers tried to downplay the scandal, before it was over there were two suicides that could not be ignored.

As this is the last main entry for 1911, here are some little updates to previous stories and other bits of "string too small to save," followed by a selection of ads that captured the spirit of the times.

* Shortly after the women's right to vote was placed on the ballot, California passed a law that limited women to no more than eight hours of work a day or 48 hours a week. Loopholes exempting women who did the hardest manual labor was one reason it was controversial; it also gave employers an incentive to fire women who worked in stores and offices (read more details here). Once it was enacted Santa Rosa businesses were heard to gripe loudly – apparently many women had been expected to work 55 hours a week or more. Store managers complained it would force them to stagger shifts or have male employees pick up the extra work. Read between the lines of the article below, however, and you'll find they were worried men couldn't be trusted with the cash register or keep from screwing up the inventory.

* The Santa Rosa papers were unabashedly parochial when it came to doings around town, reporting on who grew a big turnip and who had invited friends over for cards, but very rarely did they scrape up news about someone getting new furniture. The only exceptions I recall are for pieces made by master craftsman Frank S. Smith, who created them in his home workshop on Ripley street. He was last mentioned in 1909 when he built a 14-foot dining room table for the owners of Hood Mansion (photo here), and in 1911 he finished a complete living room and reception hall set for pharmacist Hahman and his family. The interesting angle is that the furniture was intended to harmonize with the house – which was built the year before and designed by Brainerd Jones. The home at 718 McDonald Avenue is the fourth Shingle Style design that Jones created in Santa Rosa and is the most conventional. Where the 1902 Paxton House, 1905 Comstock House and 1908 Saturday Afternoon Club were in the Eastern Shingle Style that tried to be both rustic and elegant, the Hahman House is more like an example of the Prairie School – an American Foursquare with Craftsman features. Still, it must have seemed shockingly modern amidst McDonald Avenue's row of dull Victorian mansions.

* Now out of jail and 50 years old, the life of Joe Forgett continued to be a slow-motion train wreck. Back in 1907 he made headlines by leading a breakout at the Sonoma County jail where ten prisoners overpowered the guard. Among the inmates was his wife, behind bars for "vagrancy" - the usual charge for prostitution – and later at trial, Joe said he had to escape because jailor "old Fred" was putting the moves on his wife. His family pled for mercy because he had been an opium addict for fifteen years. Joe's wife left him in 1911 and he petitioned for divorce which was a bit unusual, seeing that the couple was childless and poor (Joe lived until 1940 and was buried in the county's Potter's Field as an indigent). He was also in the papers earlier that year for failing to return a horse and buggy he borrowed in order to talk to someone about a job. "After transacting his business, Forgett forgot that he had driven to the place, and walked away, leaving the horse standing in front of the residence where he had called," reported the Santa Rosa Republican.

* The "wild man of Mendocino county" was found dead at the entrance to his cave near Hopland, and predictably the news was reported in Santa Rosa and other papers around the Bay Area. As mentioned here earlier, newspapers loved "wild men" stories and reprinted them even if the poor lunatic was wandering in the woods hundreds of miles away. Often it was followed with an ancillary item about someone hoping the guy might be a long-lost relative; after "Aemldo" Secso - also called Amedo Sesco and earlier, Amelio Regoni - was caught in 1909, a mother contacted Cloverdale police to ask if the man could be her son. And sure enough, while searching for updates to that story in a newspaper database, I found another "wild man of Mendocino county" account from 1949, and this time a woman thought the hermit could be her hubby, who suffered PTSD from his time in a German prisoner of war camp.

* San Francisco doctor Eugene West, who performed a 1909 abortion on a young Santa Rosa woman who later died, was again arrested after 22 year-old Laura Taylor also developed life-threatening complications. As with the earlier case, no charges were apparently filed against him. It was the second abortion that year for the former Santa Rosa resident, who was now cutting cloth in San Francisco. As per usual, the newspapers never mentioned the word "abortion" and called it the "malpractice" or "criminal operation."








The Native Sons of the Golden West held their convention in Santa Rosa, which tripled the town's population for the weekend as residents were asked to register any available rooms in their home to accommodate visitors. This odd front page of the Republican might have been a giveaway to conventioneers. 














HOW MERCHANTS OBSERVE WOMEN'S EIGHT HOUR LAW
Constitutionality of Law to be Tested In Los Angeles

The law making it compulsory not to employ women over eight hours a day, or 48 hours a week, has upset the routine of work in stores and factories in this city to a considerable extent, just as it has all over California. The law went into effect Monday morning. Most of the merchants find little trouble in regulating the work for most of the days of the week, but Saturday is the day that bothers the merchants. How to arrange for keeping open stores on Saturday night, there's the rub. Most of the merchants believe that eight hours a day is long enough for women to work, but find themselves at a loss just how to arrange that Saturday night proposition. This may result in an effort to have the stores close Saturday evening the same as on other evenings. With this idea in view the question will be presented to the Chamber of Commerce in an effort to bring about some agreement among the merchants in the matter.

The merchant is confronted by another feature that is troublesome. That is, shortening the hours of the cashier. In most cases there is one cashier, who has the complete handling of the cash and in that way she is entirely responsible for her cash balance, but she cannot now be employed over eight hours a day. The proprietor of the place of business that is open from 8 o'clock in the morning until 6 o'clock will take care of the cash for those hours that the cashier is not present until he has figured out some other way it can be carried out just as safe as at present.

This being open on Saturday night would be all right if any person without experience could go into a store and be a competent clerk. An experienced clerk must get acquainted with his stock to be capable. The employment of inexperienced persons invariably result in stock becoming badly disarranged and in unintentional blunders. For that reason the stores do not like to put on additional help. The question has been raised, "Does the law affect the employment of girls doing housework?"

A. T. Sutherland, of the Santa Rosa Department Store, says he has not arranged for the Saturday evening difficulty. He is complying with the eight hour law by having the women help come to the store at 9 o'clock, the men clerks attending to the customers who come to work earlier than that.

The Pioneer laundry has discontinued paying by the day, and instead pays by the hour. The flat work price has been raised a trifle and the girls come to work at different hours and quit according to the time they begin work.

The Domestic French Laundry states that their help will begin at 8 o'clock and quit at 5 o'clock.

The Santa Rosa French Laundry states that the law does not affect it, as it has always observed the eight hour day.

The Red Front, Max Rosenberg proprietor, has not completed his arrangements for Saturday nights. He is an advocate of the plan favoring the closing of the dry goods department at 6 o'clock Saturday nights. The week is fixed for in this store by having the girls go to work at 8 o'clock one week and quitting at 5 o'clock, and the other half beginning at 9 o'clock and quitting at 6 o'clock. Each week the girls are to change these hours, the girls going to work at 9 o'clock this week being those to go to work next week at 8 o'clock and vice versa.

Carithers & Forsyth have their women help come to work at 9 o'clock. For Saturday night they plan to have their men clerks handle all the trade at present.

F. C. Loomis has made provision for compliance with the law by employing extra help.

The law is to be tested in Los Angeles and it is the belief of many that the law will be declared unconstitutional.

- Santa Rosa Republican, May 23, 1911



FURNITURE FOR HAHMAN HOME
Designed and Made by Decorator F. S. Smith

Frank S. Smith has just completed and delivered to Paul T. Hahman one of the handsomest sets of furniture which graces the homes of the City of Roses. Mr. Smith is a decorator, and does special works in furniture and draperies. The set which he has manufactured for Mr. And Mrs. Hahman is artistic and handsome in every way. The entire work was done in Mr. Smith's small workshop on his premises at 1209 Ripley street.

The furniture made by the Santa Rosan was for the reception hall and living room of the handsome Hahman residence. A reception chair, cozy arm chair, table and tabouret were designed and made for the reception hall. The furniture for the living room included a mammoth Davenport, two large rockers, one large easy chair, a window chair, pedestal tabouret and large table with drawer.

Mr. Smith claims for this set of furniture that there has been nothing made where the identical lines are carried out and still secure the uniform lines are carried out and still secure the uniform lines as in the pieces he has turned out for Mr. Hahman. It was designed and made exclusively for the Hahman home, and to harmonize with the other furnishings and draperies of the residence. Mr. Smith manufactures furniture of different designs for each particular home. He has made an elegant dining room set for Senator and Mrs. Thomas Kearns of Kenwood.

All of the furniture for Mr. Hahman is upholstered in a silk damask of conventional figure, in two tones of brown. The elegant Davenport is 78 inches long and 30 inches deep. All of the furniture is equipped with sunken leather casters, which prevents scratching the polished floors of the home. It is all made of heavy quarter sawed oak and finished with a handsome piano polish, which makes it have an appearance of elegance seldom found in furniture.

 - Santa Rosa Republican, April 7, 1911



FORGETT FORGOT TO RETURN BORROWED HORSE

Joe Forgett, the cement contractor of this city, had an absent minded spell on Monday, and forgot to return a horse which he borrowed from Stewart & McDoughall, local plumbers.

The horse and vehicle were loaned Forgett to drive to the home of a prospective customer, and the firm did not know where the man had driven the animal. After transacting his business, Forgett forgot that he had driven to the place, and walked away, leaving the horse standing in front of the residence where he had called.

When the animal was not returned at closing time for the plumbing firm, Charles Stewart made a tour of many sections of the city looking for the animal. Many people were notified of the missing property and these were also on the lookout for the horse and wagon.

About 8:30 o'clock Monday evening Jack Sarraihl discovered the missing property out on Charles street. In the mean time Stewart had ridden many miles on a bicycle seeking his property.

 - Santa Rosa Republican, February 21, 1911



MRS. FORGETT HAS FORGOTTEN
Failed to Return; Husband Seeks Divorce

Joseph N. Forget, who has resided here for many years, has petitioned the Superior Court for a decree of divorce. The papers were filed on Monday and in due time the petitioner expects that the decree will be awarded him. The defendant is Jessie Isadore Forget and she is charged with desertion. That Mrs. Forget went away and forgot to return is the burden of the complaint of the husband. Attorney Ross CAmpbell represents Forget.

 - Santa Rosa Republican, November 6, 1911



DEATH TAMES 'WILD MAN' OF MENDOCINO
Death last week ended the career of Aemldo Secso, who was for a number of years known as the "wild man of Mendocino county." The man lived for years on the pilferings he made from logging camps, and although every endeavor was made to capture him, he avoided arrest for several years. Finally he was captured and after being imprisoned he returned to his old haunts, but forgot some of his wildness. He died in Mendocino county.

- Press Democrat, September 24, 1911



DR. WEST IS FACING CHARGE
The Police of San Francisco Acted Friday

Dr. Eugene West of San Francisco  has been charged with having committed an unlawful operation on Miss Laura Taylor, a Sonoma county girl, by the police of that city.

Miss Taylor has been removed from the Central Emergency hospital to the Lane hospital, where on Friday she was hovering between life and death. It is not believed she can survive, her condition being such as to almost preclude the possibility of her being saved.

William Patterson, an electrician, is being held as an accomplice to the alleged crime. He admits that he knew the girl had an operation performed by Dr. West last March, and says that recently she telephoned him asking for financial assistance for another operation. Patterson denies that he has seen the girl for three months past.

 - Santa Rosa Republican, October 13, 1911

Like robins in spring, the return of the Barlow boys to the Sebastopol work camps announced the arrival of summer.

(RIGHT: Handwritten caption on photo: "A squad goes to a near by farm to pick berries." Photo early 1910s and courtesy Western Sonoma County Historical Society)

In the early Twentieth Century, California juvenile courts sentenced boys who committed minor crimes or deemed incorrigible to spend the rest of their youth at institutions not unlike a modern prison halfway house. One of these places, the Boys' and Girls' Aid Society of San Francisco, struck a deal with the Barlow family of Sebastopol; during summers the boys would camp on the ranch and pick berries and fruit for low pay. Soon other farmers wanted in on the sweet deal for ultra-cheap labor and it wasn't long before the Aid Society and similar institutions were sending up hundred of boys – some as young as seven – to work in West County fields and canneries every year. (For more background, see "SEBASTOPOL'S CHILD LABOR CAMPS.")

The year 1911 wasn't much different than previous years; at least four boys tried to escape and a pair of them made it as far as Sacramento – no easy task, considering their clothes were locked up at night and they probably had little or no money. The Santa Rosa newspapers predictably described the Aid Society children as being on "vacation" during their time here and boasted they were earning "splendid wages," without mentioning they were being paid a fraction of the rate formerly earned by the adult farmworkers they were displacing.

Some new details did emerge however; we learn the Barlow boys were sometimes working over eleven hours a day in the fields, which certainly puts a crimp in the ol' "vacation" portrayal. Thanks to a Press Democrat summary of the Aid Society's annual report, we find more than a dozen of the boys escaped or tried to escape from their facility in San Francisco during the year, so it wasn't just that they disliked their hands and arms being incessantly scratched by thorns all summer. The Aid Society placed employment above education and about two in three of the kids had a job, which suggests the Barlow boys were the leftovers, either too young to work or unemployable for some reason. Although they said "night classes are conducted for the benefit of these working boys and every boy is given an opportunity to improve his education," I'm certain a 12 year-old who spends all day sweeping factory floors is raring to be drilled on his multiplication tables after supper.

We don't know much about the boys individually except for the occasional anecdote, such as the two Santa Rosa kids who were sentenced there for truancy and stealing chickens in 1907. But we do know some interesting stuff about them as a group because a medical journal published a 1916 study of the "juvenile delinquents" at the Aid Society. We learn they were mostly a little taller and heavier and stronger than average for their age, with over half suffering dental problems – which is really no surprise as the kids were expected to pay for their own dentistry out of their earnings (clothing, too). .

Measuring their physical traits is all well and good, but what the researchers really wanted to know was this: How smart were they? Linking criminality to low intelligence was one of the burning scientific questions of the day, and most of the boys were sentenced to the Aid Society for minor crimes – stealing, burglary, truancy and incorrigibility (children who committed serious crimes went to the Preston School of Industry at Ione, which was like a prison). To make sense of what they found, we have to first wade into the murky waters of the "IQ" test.


How do you estimate intelligence? At the turn of the century, you primarily measured the size and shape of someone's head; a pretty skull meant there were probably pretty brains inside, and a noggin that was small or shaped the "wrong" way meant the person wasn't too bright and probably wanted to steal your watch. There were other considerations (tattoos! long arms! "precocious" wrinkles!) but all came down to the nonsense that you could tell how smart, dumb, or inclined to criminality someone was by looking at their body.

French psychologist Alfred Binet was among a few pioneers in his field experimenting with a radical new approach: Evaluating how well someone answered questions and solved problems. In 1904 the French government hired him to develop a test to identify children with learning disabilities so they could be helped with special education. Over the next several years he refined his method with a colleague and the "Binet-Simon Scale" became the standard method of evaluating children, although he never claimed his technique measured intelligence.

Binet's test was adapted for American use in 1916 by Stanford University professor Lewis Terman, whose main interest was the opposite – using the test to spot "gifted" children. If those kids were given a good education, he believed they would grow up to be captains of industry, statesmen, brilliant scientists and other topnotch achievers. Professor Terman, it seems, was a true believer in the dark nonsense of eugenics with its notion some people are superior to others.

To prove his point, he followed over a thousand high-IQ youths – almost all white and middle class – around for the rest of their lives (Terman called the subjects his "Termites," yuk, yuk). Ultimately he proved himself wrong; while a great many of them went to college, overall they were no more successful than other American boys and girls in their generation. Only a handful made any sort of notable achievement, but ironically two young men who Terman deemed not smart enough to qualify later won a Nobel Prize in Physics (William Shockley and Luis Alvarez).

Terman's eugenic views are most obvious when he classified kids at the lower end of the scale. Binet called these children "retarded," meaning simply they weren't keeping up with their peers, and besides a lack of intelligence the cause could be family problems, bad teachers, or other reasons that could be fixed. When explaining how his test should be used, he worried that psychologists were too eager to tar these children for life by slapping labels on their backs with vague meanings such as "idiot," "imbecile" and "moron." Professor Terman and other eugenicists instead claimed those derogatory terms had scientific precision. Those below an IQ of about 25 he classified as idiots; a ranking of 25-50 was an imbecile; anyone between 50 and 70 was a low, middle, or high moron. Terman believed schooling these "defectives" was a waste of time and taxpayer money, except for vocational training. Possibly.

         
COULD YOU PASS A 1916 IQ TEST?

Lewis Terman's first revision of the Binet test can be found in his 1916 book, "The Measurement of Intelligence." Getting a good IQ score required more than quick wits, however; you also had to share Terman's prejudices and cultural background. Some examples:


* Shown a drawing of a Native American rowing a white man and woman in a canoe, children were asked to explain the picture. An acceptable answer was, "In frontier days a man and his wife have been captured by the Indians." An example of an unsatisfactory reply was, "Indians have rescued a couple from a shipwreck."

* Asked how a "knife blade, a penny and a piece of wire" were alike, acceptable answers included, "All are metal" or "All come from mines." It was wrong to say "they are small" or all were the same metal. Aside from the problem of assuming knowledge of different types of metal qualifies as a measure of intelligence, this is a poorly designed question. All three objects could be copper; it was regularly used in wire and copper letter openers were made. Also, brass and steel, both commonly used in blades and wire, are alloys and not mined metals.

* "My neighbor has been having queer visitors. First a doctor came to his house, then a lawyer, then a minister (preacher or priest). What do you think happened there?" The only acceptable answer was some variation of "a death." Of those who failed to answer correctly, over half apparently did not know that attorneys wrote wills or ministers conducted home funerals. Wrong answers also included "a baby born" and "a divorce," which Terman remarked was a very common reply from children living in Reno, then a destination for people nationwide seeking to end a marriage.

In his book Terman provided several case studies of low-IQ children, and a common thread was the futility of keeping them in school.  A boy of eight was kicked out of kindergarten because his 50 IQ "required so much of the teacher's time and [he] appeared uneducable." A boy who just "stands around" and was "indifferent to praise or blame" was enrolled in a sixth-grade class at age 17, but was doing "absolutely nothing" in the classroom. They were also troublemakers, according to Terman: A "high-grade moron" boy "caused much trouble at school by puncturing bicycle tires." A 14 year-old girl with an IQ of 65 was a "menace to the morals of the school because of her sex interests and lack of self-restraint." Another young woman he called "the type from which prostitutes often come."

The problem with eugenics (well, one of the problems) is that it's built on the worst sort of slippery slope logic. Not only were defectives unteachable, declared Terman, but also prone to crime – a false assumption which still carried over from the days when we were looking at the shape of heads. In his 1916 book on the IQ test he wrote, "not all criminals are feeble-minded, but all feeble-minded are at least potential criminals. That every feeble-minded woman is a potential prostitute would hardly be disputed by any one."

So did the IQ study of the Aid Society kids prove Terman right? The researchers found "dull normals" – meaning just slightly below average intelligence – were most likely to be there because they were skipping school (interestingly, they were also ten times more likely than any of the others to have bad hearing).

In the other three crime categories – stealing, burglary and incorrigibility – the boys with normal intelligence exceeded or were tied with those classified as being not as smart. More than half of the "normals" were there for stealing or burglary. The researchers also did a limited survey of the Aid Society boys' backgrounds and it shows the main environmental factors they shared were extreme poverty and bad friends. It completely disproved Terman's eugenics theories; these bad eggs were mostly average boys who happened to be poor and hung out with the wrong crowd.

Whether Terman read that study is unknown but it is extremely likely, given that it was based on the Binet tests he was then adapting for American use. It certainly didn't make him waver in his views; as years went on his enthusiasm for eugenics hardened. He began saying some people – including entire nationalities and races – were uniformly inferior. He later wrote, "a median IQ of 80 for Italian, Portuguese, and Mexican school children in the cities of California would be a liberal estimate."

We also can't be sure if Terman ever came up from Stanford to visit Sonoma County, but if he did it was surely to meet Dr. Fred O. Butler of the Sonoma State Home (now called the Sonoma Developmental Center). Prof. Terman was an enthusiastic believer that "defectives" should be sterilized so they can't parent children, and Dr. Butler had turned the hospital into a sterilization mill, leading the nation in performing thousands of such operations. And when eugenicists later classified homosexual boys and promiscuous girls as sexually delinquent defectives, they were forcibly sterilized by Dr. Butler as well (see "SONOMA COUNTY AND EUGENICS" for more).

Today the reputation of Lewis Terman has been largely whitewashed. A recent textbook on multicultural education points out that high school and college texts are likely to describe his genius tracking study and his revision of Binet's scale but rarely is his eugenics history noted. A Google search for his name in scholarly books and journals shows the word "eugenics" appears in only 1 out of 10 works.

Yet the damage he caused was incalculable. By turning Binet's method – which wasn't intended to measure intelligence at all – into a written test with right and wrong answers, Terman made it easy to condemn people who tested poorly as inferiors, which usually leads to lives of lesser opportunities and hopes. He was a bad scientist with regrettable ethics; Terman was on the Advisory Committee of the American Eugenics Society and didn't resign until after Hitler came to power, so maybe he should be called clueless as well.

The one bright spot in this dismal tale is that in 1916, the Barlow boys proved him completely, utterly wrong about everything. Too bad he wasn't smart enough to pay attention.



DID GOOD WORK FOR THE BOYS
Accomplishments of the Boys and Girls Aid Society--Boys Are Picking Berries

The annual meeting of the Boys' and Girls' Aid Society was held on Tuesday for the purpose of hearing reports of the officers of the Society and electing a Board of Trustees for the ensuing year. In the absence of the president, Senator George C. Perkins, who is in Washington, D. C., the chair was taken by the vice-president, Charles A. Murdock.

The report of the superintendent, George C. Turner, gave the details of the splendid work of the Society for the needy boys of San Francisco and vicinity.

Two hundred and forty-one boys were received into the hands of the Society during the year ending June 30th, and received the benefits of special training and schooling including manual training under the Lloyd system.

The Society is working in conjunction with the juvenile courts and probation officers of this and other counties in the State and has received one hundred and forty boys from the courts.

As the boys improve in their conduct and when they have made satisfactory progress in their school work, they are secured positions through the employment agency maintained by the Society, through which one hundred and fifty-one boys were placed in good positions during the year.

The best qualities of manhood are developed by the care given the boys who are placed on their honor. This is shown by the fact that during last year 5,172 leaves of absence were granted on Sundays with but 13 failures to return--less than ½ of 1%.

For homeless boys the Society maintains the Charles R. Bishop Annex, where boys may board while they are learning trades and until they become self-supporting. These boys have individual rooms not very large, but neat and tasteful and have sitting rooms, library, and the family dining room where excellent meals are served at moderate rates. Night classes are conducted for the benefit of these working boys and every boy is given an opportunity to improve his education.

The younger boys are sent to approved country homes through the Children's Agency, the Children's Home Society and the Native Sons and Native Daughters Committee on Homeless Children, who last year placed out fifty-two boys for the Society. Children so placed are permanently removed from the streets of the city and often grow up in their environment.

In addition to the work in San Francisco, the Society maintains a summer camp on the Barlow ranch near Sebastopol, where last year one hundred and sixty-three boys were engaged in picking loganberries and Mammoths and Lawton blackberries, picking one hundred and ninety-four tons of berries and earning in all $3,948, of which the boys received $2,328.39, which was used for clothing and dentistry, and some of it put in the bank.

The summer outing is a great benefit to the boys and a great help to the berry growers, who have learned to depend on the boys for assistance in harvesting their berries.

The officers and trustees for the following year are: [...]

- Press Democrat, July 21, 1911


BOYS PICKING MANY BERRIES
Having Great Financial Success in Their Labors

Special Officer W. D. Scott, of the Boys' and Girls' Aid Society, came up on the evening train Tuesday with several boys, who were being escorted to the berry fields at the Barlow ranch near Sebastopol.

Two of the boys in charge of Mr. Scott had recently made their escape from the berry fields, having taken French leave at night. They passed through this city and made their way to Sacramento before they wee captured. They were Clarence Johnson and H. Chapman. They enjoyed liberty for four days.

Officer Scott declares the boys in the berry fields are not only having one of the finest vacations they have ever enjoyed, but they are meeting with greater financial success than ever before. One of the boys in camp earned $2.64 in one day during the past week and most of the boys are averaging splendid wages. The berries are ripening rapidly and the lads are laboring until 6 o'clock each evening in the endeavor to relieve the vines of their burden of fruit before it becomes too ripe for shipment.

On a recent evening the books at the camp were examined and it was found that the boys had collectively earned $1800 up to that date in harvesting the berry crop. The harvest will last for some time to come, and it can be readily be seen what a financial benefit the outing of the boys turns out to be. Aside from this it gives the lads one of the best vacations in the country that could be planned for them.

- Santa Rosa Republican, July 26, 1911



RUNAWAY BOYS RECAPTURED

Two runaway boys from the Boys' and Girls' Aid Society camp at Mrs. Barlow's ranch in the Gold Ridge district were taken back to camp by officers of the association Saturday night, after having been caught here by Officer Nick Yeager.

- Santa Rosa Republican, July 31, 1911


BOYS EARNED MUCH MONEY
Berry Harvesting Profitable to Large Number

Something of the magnitude of the berry industry in the Gold Ridge section can be ascertained when it is realized that the forces of the Boys' and Girls' Aid Society this season earned more than $4600 gathering the crop. The boys were paid four cents per tray for the harvesting of the berries, both Logans and blacks.

The boys went into camp on the Barlow place about June 1st, and finished picking the berries on September 13. Their record this year shows that they have earned one hundred dollars more than on any previous year, the record of $4500 having been made in 1910. This would indicate that the berry crop was slightly larger this year than the previous season.

Two-thirds of this money will be distributed to the boys who earned it, and it will be given them in proportion to the amount earned by each individual boys. With the moneys [sic] given to the boys they have the right to choose what they will do with it, so long as the contemplated expenditure is legitimate. Many of the lads buy clothing, some place the money in bank to draw interest, while still others help their families financially. Most of the boys buy magazines with a portion of their coin.

During the year the boys were engaged in picking for about twenty people while they were in the Gold Ridge section. Their camp at the Barlow ranch was dismantled Friday morning, preparatory for their start for home and Old Glory, which has floated from the flagstaff there daily was hauled down with appropriate ceremonies.

Ninety-five boys were in the merry party which returned to San Francisco on the afternoon train Friday, having had one of the most enjoyable outings on record.

- Santa Rosa Republican, September 15, 1911

It was the best and worst of times for the two men; for 21 year-old  Hilliard Comstock, 1912 brought memorable and happy days – but for his friend and mentor, James Wyatt Oates it was a year of retreat and sorrow as the health of his beloved wife, Mattie, slowly faded away.

(RIGHT: Hilliard Comstock undated portrait. Image courtesy Martha Comstock Keegan)

The previous item covered the decline of the Oates', where it was noted the couple completely disappeared from any mention in the papers after July. Never before had that happened; even when they were away from Santa Rosa, there were always society column tidbits about who they were visiting, when they would be home, or such. The latest on Mattie's heart condition was reported obsessively until the blackout began. And what else happened that month? Hilliard Comstock became an attorney.

Hilliard – or "Hillyard" "Oomstock" as the local newspapers hilariously misspelled his name in separate errors – began reading law with Oates in 1909 and passed the bar examination on his first attempt. Not bad for a guy who had never set foot in any sort of classroom.

Before the end of July it was announced Hilliard would be practicing law from Oates' office in the Santa Rosa Bank building (now better known as the Empire building). They weren't yet partners; "Oates & Comstock" would not be painted on the windows for a couple of years. Then only a few days after that, he made his first appearance in the Superior Court as an associate of Oates' in a small damages case against the Southern Pacific railroad.

It is surely no coincidence that the Oates' vanished from public exactly the same week Hilliard stepped on stage.  Having his protégé available to "mind the store" freed Wyatt to do whatever he wanted, which was likely nothing more than just staying at home by Mattie's bedside (hopefully not smoking his usual cigars).

Passing the bar and launching his legal career would be enough to keep most people busy, but also that July he was elected second lieutenant in the National Guard. Shortly after that first appearance in court Hilliard joined the rest of the local company in two weeks of maneuvers with Army troops in the Central Valley, so maybe Oates hung around his downtown office for a few weeks after all.

National Guard Company E was as much a boy's club as it was a militia, and the last sighting of Hilliard in 1912 is of him helping organize a blowout New Year's Day party. But his most notable social event that year was meeting future wife Helen at a barn dance. In her  oral history, she recalled Hilliard always said he asked to dance with the pretty little girl who had "red cheeks and curls up on top of her head." According to him, 13 year-old Helen stuck a finger in her mouth and replied, "I don't rag, thank you." Helen said she didn't remember that, but Hilliard would laugh and swear it was true.




HILLYARD COMSTOCK PASSES AS ATTORNEY

Hillyard Comstock, one of the well known residents of Santa Rosa, took the bar examination before the Appellate Court at Sacramento on Monday, and successfully passed the ordeal. He will begin the practice of law in this city in the near future. Mr. Comstock's many friends are glad to know of his success.

- Santa Rosa Republican, July 2, 1912



LAW OFFICE OPENED BY HILLIARD OOMSTOCK

Hilliard Comstock, who was recently admitted to practice law, has opened a law office in the Santa Rosa Bank building and is ready to attend to all matters in the courts of the county and State. He has his office in the same suite as Colonel James W. Oates. Mr. Comstock has a great many friends who wish him every success in the practice of his profession.

- Press Democrat, July 24, 1912



NAME COMSTOCK FOR LIEUTENANT

Election in Held by Company E Monday Night--Plans for the Encampment Next Month

Colonel D. A. Smith, commanding the Fifth Regiment Infantry and Major L. C. Francis of the Third Battalion, Fifth Infantry, N. G. C. were visitors here over Monday night when Company E, which is a part of the third battalion of the Fifth Regiment, elected Hilliard Comstock as second lieutenant, thus completing its roll of officers, following the recent resignation of captain and lieutenant.

Mr. Comstock was only elected after five ballots had been taken and then by a majority of one vote. While the contest was close no feeling has been engendered and all will unite in giving the three new officers the support which goes to make a strong company. Following the election Mr. Comstock underwent his examination for the position at the hands of the visiting officers and made a very creditable showing. With the others he will now take the physical examination, and it is probable all three commissions will arrive at the same time prior to the Company leaving for camp.

Company E will join the regiments on Sunday August 11, in San Francisco, en route to Salinas to participate in the two weeks maneuvers in conjunction with the regular army, and the other militia forces in the state. It is necessary that thirty-eight men make the trip to maintain the standing of the company in the Guard. At the present time thirty members have signed the roll signifying their intention of participating in the maneuvers. Under the law the men will receive $1 per day from the State, and 50 cents per day from the Federal government for the occasion...

- Press Democrat, July 30, 1912



HILLIARD COMSTOCK'S FIRST APPEARANCE

 Hilliard Comstock, attorney-at-law, made his first appearance in the Superior Court on Saturday, being associated with Colonel J. W. Oates as counsel for the plaintiff in the suit of George M. Root against the Southern Pacific Company. The plaintiff sues to recover property upon which the railroad entered in the L. J. Nolan addition to Santa Rosa, for $500 damages and for $250 for loss of rents and profits and for other relief.

- Press Democrat, August 6, 1912



 CO. E BOYS TO HAVE HAPPY NEW YEAR
 Armory Will Keep Open House and There Will Be Feasting and Right Merry Time

 New Year's Day will be a jolly one for the members of Company E. N. G. C. of this city. "Open House" is to be kept for the members from four o'clock in the afternoon until 12 midnight.

 There will be some big "eats" too, for the soldier boys. The viands will include roast turkey, mince pie, plum pudding, cake, etc. In between the feasting Lieutenant Hilliard Comstock, who is much interested in indoor baseball, says there will be baseball and pool, billiards, etc. for the entertainment of the members. Captain Edward Walden Beatty and Lieutenant Leland Britton and Lieutenant Comstock, and the non-commissioned officers will be on hand to assist in giving every one a good time. Corporal R. L. Hunt will be master of ceremonies.

- Press Democrat, December 28, 1912

We don't know exactly when Mattie Oates had her first heart attack, but it might have been the night of the fire. Two weeks later, the Press Democrat's weekly society column noted, "The many friends of Mrs. James Wyatt Oates will hear with regret that she is ill with a trained nurse in attendance. The attack which was very serious at first has yielded to good care and attention."

While there was no damage to her home from the August, 1911 chimney blaze, it was undoubtedly a terrifying experience for the 53 year-old woman. Her death certificate would later date the beginning of her illness to that year and name the cause as "dilitation of heart" – an old-fashioned name for enlarged heart (cardiomegaly) – which is often related to a big spike in blood pressure. As in: What happens to you when someone is banging on your door in the middle of the night and screaming about your house being on fire.

From that point onward, Mattie was an invalid. Over the following months the society columns in both Santa Rosa newspapers chronicled her better days ("she is making rapid progress towards recovery") and her setbacks ("a specialist from San Francisco...held little hope for her recovery"). Yes, the columnists sometimes mentioned the health of other society matrons, but never with such obsessive interest.

Until the fire and heart attack, 1911 had been a good year for the Oates. They hosted at least three dinner parties at their home (which would later become known as Comstock House) and had house guests, including the beloved woman who was something of a godchild to them, the former Anna May Bell, who brought along her baby daughter. Wyatt stepped down as president of the Sonoma County Automobile Association after two years and was lauded for his service. And being the car-crazy fool that he was, he bought them a new car – a Hupmobile two-seater, with a peppy 20 horsepower engine.

But after her heart attack, every Oates sighting in the papers concerns her health and convalescence. The couple spent several weeks in Southern California during the 1911-1912 winter to escape the Northern California rains and visit friends. The gossip columns reported that Mattie was feeling better but Wyatt was bored; of Santa Barbara, he wrote to the Press Democrat, "The tourist crop is not yet quite ripe, and as they have no other here, it is very dull." Once back in Santa Rosa she had another relapse.

The Oates were slowly fading from public view; this item combines their doings in 1911 and 1912 because even the obsessive society column health updates ended after about a year. In 1912 Anna May visited again and in midsummer there was a small dinner in Mattie's honor at a downtown restaurant. That was the last mention of either of them for the rest of the year.

Not all was despair and deathwatch for James Wyatt Oates, however; at this same time the career of his protégé was launching, as covered in the following item. The path ahead for Wyatt and Mattie led into twilight – but for Hilliard Comstock, on the horizon was a bright dawn.





The many friends of Mrs. James Wyatt Oates will learn with regret of her late indisposition. A relapse following a sever attack of lagrippe has confined Mrs. Oates to her room the greater part of the past week.

- "In Society" column, Press Democrat, January 15, 1911


Colonel and Mrs. James Wyatt Oates are delightfully entertaining Mrs. R. G. Harrell of Fresno. Mrs. Harrell has visited Santa Rosa previously and made many friends who welcome her return as she is a most charming woman of the Southern type. Miss Bess Woodward is also a guest at the Oates home during her mother's Eastern trip.

- "Society Gossip" column, Press Democrat, March 5, 1911



An informal evening was enjoyed at the beautiful home of Colonel and Mrs. James Wyatt Oates Saturday when a few young friends dropped in to enjoy a game of cards. The reception and living rooms were gracefully decorated with roses, intermingled with greenery. "Spoff," a new card game, was played during the evening, after which a chafing dish supper was served. Miss Bess Woodward, who has been the guest of Mrs. Oates for the past few weeks, was the motif for the delightful evening.

- "Society Gossip" column, Press Democrat, April 30, 1911



Mr. and Mrs. Samuel Keeler Dunlap  of Los Angeles, accompanied by their small daughter, Sue Elizabeth, are the guests of Colonel and Mrs. James Wyatt Oates. Mr. Dunlap will remain over Sunday, but Mrs. Dunlap, who will be remembered as the popular Miss Anne May Bell and Sue Elizabeth will stay for several weeks. Much interest is being manifest over the small girl as in the whole twenty months' span of her short life, she has not visited Santa Rosa. Sue Elizabeth bids fair to rival her mother in popularity and it is whispered baby parties will be quite au fait for this little miss.

- "Society Gossip" column, Press Democrat, June 11, 1911



Colonel and Mrs. James Wyatt Oates are entertaining a week-end house party in honor of Mrs. Samuel Kerry Dunlap of Los Angeles. The guests are congenial friends who have been entertained in the past at the Charles Rule ranch. Today a motor trip will be made to Bithers' Grove, near Healdsburg, where a quiet afternoon will be spent. The guests will be Miss Morrell, Mrs. Dorothy Farmer, Miss Hazel Farmer, Mrs. E. F. Woodward, Miss Bess Woodward, the guest of honor, Mrs. Dunlap, little Sue Elizabeth Dunlap and Charles Rule.

- "Society Gossip" column, Press Democrat, June 18, 1911



Larkspurs of the soft pastel shades, beautified the dining table upon the occasion of a dinner given by Colonel and Mrs. James Wyatt Oates Wednesday evening in honor of Mr. and Mrs. Francis Blair Hull, of Jackson, Mississippi, and Mrs. F. S. Sanberg of Los Angeles. Covers were laid for twelve guests, who enjoyed the charming hospitality that is always extended from the Oates home. An elaborate menu was served. The guests were: Mr. and Mrs. Francis Blair Hull, Dr. and Mrs. S. S. Bogle, Mr. and Mrs. Charles A. Wright, Mrs. E. F. Woodward, Mrs. F. S. Sanberg, Miss Woodward and Judge Thomas Denny.

- "Society Gossip" column, Press Democrat, August 26, 1911



The many friends of Mrs. James Wyatt Oates will hear with regret that she is ill with a trained nurse in attendance. The attack which was very serious at first has yielded to good care and attention.

- "Society Gossip" column, Press Democrat, September 10, 1911



Mrs. James Wyatt Oates is still confined to the house, but is convalescent. Saturday she showed a material change for the better, a fact that will be welcome news to her many friends.

- "Society Gossip" column, Press Democrat, October 1, 1911



MRS. OATES BETTER

Upon inquiry on Thursday it was learned that Mrs. J. W. Oates is improving slowly. The doctor says that if she continues to improve the way she is now and no complications set in, she will recover. This is good news to her many friends, who have anxiously awaited good tidings from her bedside.

- Santa Rosa Republican, October 12, 1911



The serious condition of Mrs. Oates caused the postponement of the Cup and Saucer Club and the Afternoon Bridge Club which were to have been entertained by Mrs. Ross Campbell and Mrs. T. T. Overton last Tuesday and Thursday, respectively. The parties will take place this week.

- "Society Gossip" column, Press Democrat, October 15, 1911



It will be with regret that the friends of Mrs. James Wyatt Oates will learn that her condition is considered very critical. Saturday a specialist from San Francisco was called in consultation, and he held little hope for her recovery. Mrs. Oates has been a central figure in church, philanthropic and social circles for many years, and it will be the sincere prayer from may hearts today that she will be spared.

- "Society Gossip" column, Press Democrat, November 8, 1911



It is with pleasure that the friends of Mrs. James Wyatt Oates hear of her daily improvement. She is now able to walk around her room and each day sees marked change in her returning strength. She is, however, still unable to see callers as it is deemed advisable for her to be as quiet as possible. It will be with great cordiality that Mrs. Oates will be welcomed back into social affairs, where she has always been a pleasant figure.

- "Society Gossip" column, Press Democrat, November 12, 1911



MRS. JAMES W. OATES DEPARTS FOR RULE RANCH

Mrs. James Wyatt Oates departed on the Guerneville branch train Monday for the Rule ranch at Jenner, where she will spend an indefinite time in recuperation. It will be good news to the many friends of the lady to know that she has so far recovered that she could undertake the journey to the country. Miss Bertha Levy accompanied Mrs. Oates and will be her companion at the Rule ranch. Mrs. Oates has recently had a critical illness and at times it was believed she was in the shadows. She is now doing nicely and it is believed that with a change of climate she will rapidly regain her health and strength.

- Santa Rosa Republican, October 19, 1911



MRS. OATES ON ROAD TO RECOVERY

The many friends of Mrs. J. W. Oates will be pleased to hear that she is making rapid progress towards recovery at the Rule ranch where she has been for the past week. Dr. S. S. Bogle returned from a visit to the ranch Monday, accompanied by Mr. Oates and both expressed their satisfaction at the progress Mrs. Oates is making. Miss Levy is with the patient and with the fine weather they are able to be out of doors considerable as Mrs. Oates walks about freely.

- Press Democrat, November 28, 1911



MRS. JAMES W. OATS MAKING FINE IMPROVEMENT

Colonel James W. Oates and Dr. S. S. Bogle returned to Santa Rosa on Monday in the latter's touring car from Jenner, near Duncan's Mills, where they had been to visit Mrs. Oates. Colonel Oates had spent all of last week with his wife at the Rule ranch, and Dr. Bogle went over Sunday to ascertain how his patient was getting along. The improvement that has come to Mrs. Oates in her brief stay at the hospitable Rule home is little less than miraculous. The lady is bright and cheerful, able to take short walks with her nurse, Miss Bertha Levy and recently enjoyed a trip to the beach in a surry to which Charles Rule had hitched a spanking team. Colonel Oates is decidedly happy at the improvement and his face beams with smiles as he tells his friends of the splendid change. Mrs. Oates spends much of her time in reading in the sun on the big porch. There has been an entire absence of fogs during her sojourn at the Rule ranch, and only the sunniest and balmiest of fall weather has prevailed. Dr. Bogle is likewise gratified at the improvement Mrs. Oates has shown. The report will certainly be good news to the many friends of the popular Santa Rosan. Mrs. Oates' stay at the Rule ranch is indefinite.

- Santa Rosa Republican, November 28, 1911



Mrs. James Wyatt Oates  has so far recovered her strength and health that since her return from Duncan's Mills last Sunday, she has been able to see intimate friends. Mrs. Oates has had a long and hard struggle with a serious illness, so the fact that she will soon be able to participate in social affairs will be pleasant news to her hosts of friends.

- "Society Gossip" column, Press Democrat, December 10, 1911



Colonel and Mrs. James Wyatt Oates will leave Tuesday morning for Santa Barbara and other southern cities. This trip is being taken with a view of giving Mrs. Oates, who is convalescent from a long and serious illness, a complete change of climate. They will be absent two months but during that interval Col. Oates will make several flying trips home to attend to business matters. They take with them the good wishes of many friends who hope they will enjoy their holiday and that Mrs. Oates will return entirely restored to health.

- "Society Gossip" column, Press Democrat, December 31, 1911



CARD RECEIVED FROM COLONEL OATES

A card was received here Monday from Colonel James W. Oates from Santa Barbara. Her many friends will be glad to know that Mrs. Oates stood the trip nicely and is improving rapidly. They will leave Santa Barbara on Wednesday for Los Angeles, where they will visit Mr. and Mrs. D. A. Dunlap. Miss Dunlap was formerly Miss Anna May Bell. Colonel Oates says he does not see much difference in the Santa Barbara climate than ours. "The tourist crop is not yet quite ripe, and as they have no other here, it is very dull," he adds.

- Press Democrat, January 9, 1912




COLONEL OATES IS HOME FROM THE SOUTHLAND

Colonel James W. Oates returned to town from Los Angeles on Saturday, and after spending a few days here, he will rejoin Mrs. Oates there. In various places in the southland Colonel and Mrs. Oates will spend the next couple of months. They will remain in Los Angeles for some time and then go to San Diego. They will visit Del Mar near Santa Barbara, and will again return to Los Angeles for another visit prior to coming to their home here. Colonel Oates states that his wife is gradually regaining her strength and is undoubtedly being benefited by the change of air and scene. He is feeling fine and has already gained eight pounds in weight.

- Press Democrat, January 21, 1912



COLONEL AND MRS. OATES SOJOURNING AT LONG BEACH

Colonel and Mrs. James W. Oates have gone to Long beach, where they will sojourn for an indefinite time. They have taken apartments at the Southern Home and expect to have a good rest and much recreation there. Mrs. Oates continues to improve in the southern climate, and will be completely restored to health upon their return to the City of Roses.

- Santa Rosa Republican, February 7, 1912



COLONEL AND MRS. OATES FROM SOUTHLAND

Colonel and Mrs. James W. Oates reached their home in the beautiful City of Roses on Wednesday and are glad to be back in this delightful climate. As Colonel Oates expressed it on his return, this climate has some snap to it, and is far the best he has found after all. The last ten days the Santa Rosans spent in the southland it was hot, sultry and dry, and decidedly enervating, and had a somewhat weakening effect on Mrs. Oates. On the whole Mrs. Oates is much improved from her extended outing, with the exception of a slight cold, which she recently contracted, and which bothers her somewhat.

Colonel Oates had the misfortune to have an affection [sic] in his eyes while at Long Beach and was in the hands of a specialist and nurse for several days. Heated compresses and medicines were kept on his eyes in a darkened room for several days, and for a time the condition of his eyes was serious. He is compelled to wear smoked glasses still from the effects of the poison which attacked his eyes. Fortunately the effects of the poison were overcome and there will be no permanent injury to his sight. Colonel and Mrs. Oates find it decidedly pleasing to be back again among their friends and occupy their own cozy home. Many Santa Rosans will be glad to know they have returned.

- Santa Rosa Republican, February 21, 1912



Mrs. James W. Oates has made rapid progress toward recovery this week, and has regained much of her strength lost by the relapse occasioned by the trip home from the southern part of the State. Flowers and frequent inquiries concerning Mrs. Oates' progress toward health continue to pour into the Oates home. Very few visitors are permitted to see the patient and those for a very brief space of time.

- "Society Gossip" column, Press Democrat, March 10, 1912



Mrs. James W. Oates had the pleasure of motoring into the country several times this week. After having been confined to the house since her return from the south which was several weeks ago, Mrs. Oates has greatly enjoyed getting out into the sunshine.

- "Society Gossip" column, Press Democrat, April 7, 1912



Mrs. Anna May Bell Dunlap of Los Angeles was the motif for an informal afternoon tea on Thursday given by Mrs. Blitz W. Paxton. A few intimate friends dropped in and enjoyed renewing friendships with Mrs. Dunlap, who is very popular socially in Santa Rosa.

Colonel and Mrs. James Wyatt Oates are entertaining Mrs. Dunlap, who arrived the first of the week to make a visit with them. Owing to the condition of Mrs. Oates' health the social functions in Mrs. Dunlap's honor will be of a quiet nature.

- "Society Gossip" column, Press Democrat, May 12, 1912



In the Country

Mrs. J. W. Oates is spending some time with Mrs. E. F. Woodward and Miss Bess Woodward, at their country home near Woolsey. Colonel Oates motors out in the evenings and returns to town in the mornings. The country air is benefiting Mrs. Oates.

- "Local Social Doings" column, Santa Rosa Republican, February 21, 1912



Mrs. James Wyatt Oates was the complimented guest on Tuesday, when Dr. S. S. Bogle gave a dinner in her honor at the Overton Grill. Shasta daisies and sweet peas gracefully intertwined with maiden hair ferns, artistically decorated the large round table, where covers were laid for eight. An elaborate menu was served. As this is the first social affair Mrs. Oates has been able to attend for a long period of time, owing to a trying illness, it was an event of much pleasure to the friends invited to meet her. The dinner guests were: Colonel and Mrs. James Wyatt Oates, Mrs. E. F. Woodward and Miss Bess Woodward, Mrs. Dorothy Farmer, Miss Edith Runyon of Los Angeles and Ralph Farmer.

- "Society Gossip" column, Press Democrat, July 21, 1912



It was great good luck the house escaped damage that August morning; had the fire been discovered just a few minutes later the big roof could have been engulfed and quickly after that, the entirety of the landmark home which would later become known as Comstock House.

The item appearing in the Santa Rosa Republican was maddeningly brief and vague. Apparently someone spotted flames coming from the chimney during the night and sounded a fire alarm, also waking Mattie and James Wyatt Oates. Firemen arrived and put out the blaze with a handheld fire extinguisher combined with another one provided by Oates. The incident seems to have left the Oates' shaken, as will be discussed in the following post.

Chimney fires were a serious concern in that era, when almost all buildings in residential areas had wood shake or shingle roofs. Not only could a structure burn quickly, but flying embers could set afire nearby buildings, destroying neighborhoods and even entire cities; the 1923 Berkeley fire saw nearly 600 homes burn in a few hours as wind-whipped flames raced over rooftops. Towns like Santa Rosa were particularly vulnerable because at the time of the Oates fire, Santa Rosa firefighters were no better equipped than they were during the 1906 earthquake, still using the same old horse-drawn wagons. When there was a real conflagration – such as the 1910 Levin Tannery fire – the Santa Rosa Fire Department had to rely upon citizens to volunteer their automobiles and swiftly ferry gear and crew between the station house and scene of the blaze.

(RIGHT: Santa Rosa Fire Department seen in their Pope-Hartford fire truck, 1915. Photo courtesy Sonoma County Library)

All that was about to change later in 1911, thankfully. The city fathers, who shamefully went on the cheap in building the post-earthquake firehouse, were now willing to put a few bucks towards modern firefighting tools, including a gasoline engine fire truck.

The Knox truck dealership was vying for the sale and brought their latest model up from San Francisco. While demonstrating the machine's bells and whistles, a real fire alarm sounded in the Cherry street neighborhood. Firemen with the horse-drawn steam fire engine were quickly on their way. Not one to miss a great sales opportunity, the company rep invited the city councilmen and SRFD chief Frank Muther to jump aboard and head for the action.

Despite the driver not knowing Santa Rosa streets and taking a much longer route, the truck still reached the fire ahead of the horses. "The conflagration was a small one, but was quickly put out by the Knox chemical," reported the Santa Rosa Republican. "After the fire the members of the city council were taken for a ride about town." Deal closed, eh?

It was certainly a boffo demo, but a few months later the town chose instead to buy a Pope-Hartford model fire engine, which was a better known make. Like the Knox, it was technically a "Combination Chemical and Hose Wagon," which meant that it had tanks that could mix on the fly "carbonic acid gas" (AKA carbon dioxide) to smother flames. The Press Democrat article transcribed below gives a pretty good description of the truck's features, but additional details and a side photo can be found here.

Their Pope-Hartford fire truck was delivered in mid-December, driving up from the Petaluma wharf in less than an hour, thanks to its powerful 50 horsepower motor. Apparently the frenzy over its arrival was so great that a car hit their mascot Buster in front of the firehouse. "He was run over and killed by a careless auto driver who had the entire street, and yet would not get by without killing Buster," lamented the Press Democrat, noting the pooch was "a favorite with all who have occasion to visit the house or pass it regularly." As the Fifth St. PD offices were directly across the street, the writer undoubtedly had first-hand knowledge of the deceased.

The new fire engine finally brought the Santa Rosa Fire Department into the Twentieth Century and just a few months later, there was another page turned when SRFD chief Frank Muther retired.

Frank Muther was universally respected as fire chief and his tireless leadership on the morning of the 1906 earthquake likely saved the town from widespread destruction. Even Press Democrat editor Ernest Finley, who viewed Republicans with suspicion in that era, wrote admiringly of Muther in his collection of character sketches, "Santa Rosans I Have Known:"

Frank Muther, pioneer cigar manufacturer and dealer, for years was chief of the fire department, and no matter what the hour he was always on hand when the bell rang. He was a picturesque character and in politics an ardent Republican, but with him friendship came first, even when everybody was supposed to take sides and when opposing tickets had to be place in the field as far down the line as dog catcher. Rough and often boisterous of manner, he was a real sport and an all-round good fellow. Muther was a man typical of the times. In later life he quieted down, as most men do, but he never lost his force and mental vigor.

(RIGHT: Frank Muther, 1849-1927. Photo from "Illustrated Portfolio of Santa Rosa and Vicinity," 1909)

Yet despite his historical bonafides, Frank Muther is about as forgotten as anyone can be forgotten. There isn't even a headstone on his grave (he's buried in the old Odd Fellows' Cemetery lot 21, just on the other side of the fence from the Fulkerson crypt in the Rural Cemetery). Possibly there was a wooden marker originally; in the 1950s the city made an ill-conceived effort to clean up weedy undergrowth at Rural with a controlled burn which ended up torching trees, roses and many, many wooden markers. As Muther's family plot and several others in that row are likewise bare, it's easy to presume the fire must have crossed the fence.

With the 110th earthquake anniversary coming up next year, some sort of tribute to that man is really overdue.




FIRE SCARE SUNDAY AT COLONEL OATES' HOME

The residents of Mendocino avenue were alarmed early Sunday morning by an alarm of fire which summoned the department to the residence of Colonel and Mrs. James Wyatt Oates, at the corner of that thoroughfare and Benton street. A blazing chimney was the cause of the alarm, and an extinguisher that was on hand at the Oates home and one from the fire department extinguished the blaze. There was no damage from the fire.

- Santa Rosa Republican, August 28, 1911



AUTOMOBILE FIRE ENGINE WHICH MADE RECORD BREAKING RUN TO CHASE FIRE ON SUNDAY

C. S. Richardson, manager of the Reliance Automobile Company of San Francisco and his chauffeur came up to this city Sunday morning, bringing with him a Knox automobile combination chemical fire extinguisher and hose wagon. He brought it here to demonstrate it to the city council in answer to the advertisement made by the city dads for bids for one of these machines to be addd to our fire fighting apparatus.

A fire in the residence owned by Mrs. Frank Graves and occupied by Mr. and Mrs. Guy Chase a few months before 2 o'clock gave the Knox automobile combination machine a chance to demonstrate its efficiency. Although starting from the engine house after the hook and ladder had left. It reached the fire first, going the long way to the fire, as the chauffeur did not know the direct route. The conflagration was a small one, but was quickly put out by the Knox chemical. Mr. and Mrs. Chase were over in Sebastopol at the time the fire started. They were preparing to move from the house, and the fire caught in some goods that were packed. The damage done was nominal. After the fire the members of the city council were taken for a ride about town by Mr. Richardson in the Knox. Mr. Richardson will be here until after the council meeting Tuesday evening.

The run to the fire was made under adverse circumstances, which taken in account, makes the Knox's performance remarkable. At the time that fire alarm 16 was rung in, no one was in the machine. It waited for Fire Chief Muther and several of the councilmen and others before starting and traveled a greater distance, turning three corners to one for the hook and ladder in reaching the conflagration. The working of the twin chemical tanks proved interesting to the people of the fire department. Both tanks have an outlet into one hose that can be run into the burning building. They are so arranged that while the chemicals are being used in one tank, the other can be filled, and then the chemicals drawn from the refilled tank without any loss of time. Chief Muther and the members of the city council who saw the demonstration at the fire and who went on the ride about town on the Knox, were greatly pleased at the high grade quality of the materials and mechanical construction, and its complete equipment.

- Santa Rosa Republican, May 1, 1911



CITY'S NEW AUTO CHEMICAL FIRE ENGINE HAS ARRIVED

Santa Rosa's new auto chemical fire engine, manufactured by the Pope-Hartford Automobile Company of Hartford, Conn., arrived last night, and is now at the Grand Garage on Main street. It is a handsome and substantially built machine, complete in every detail, and will be a valuable addition to the city fire-fighting equipment. It will be placed in commission at once.

The machine was brought up to Petaluma last night by boat, and from there proceeded under its own power, the run from Petaluma being made in less than an hour. S. W. Jewell of the Consolidated Motor Car Company of San Francisco and Charles O. Buckner of the Santa Rosa Fire Department were in charge. Buckner has been in San Francisco for several days, ever since the car arrived from the factory taking instructions as to its use and handling.

The machine is something like thirty feet long and the tires are 40xC. Two thirty-five gallon chemical tanks and two three-gallon hand tanks are carried, a thirty-foot extension and several smaller ladders and hose for the chemical tanks. Besides this a large space is provided for water hose. There is a full compliment of power for lights, including a huge searchlight, all by acetylene with electrical control. The finish is in dark maroon, with brass trimmings and the machine is appropriately lettered. The accompanying illustration gives a good idea of the appearance of the new machine. [Low quality photo on scratched microfilm not shown here - je]

-  Press Democrat, December 16, 1911



BUSTER, THE FIREDOG, IS NO MORE

Buster is dead. He was run over and killed by a careless auto driver who had the entire street, and yet would not get by without killing Buster.

Buster was the mascot at the fire engine house, a favorite with all who have occasion to visit the house or pass it regularly. The fire laddies amused themselves many an hour playing with the dog as he greatly enjoyed running after a stick, package or stone and returning it to the thrower with a wagging of his tail and a joyous bark.

-  Press Democrat, December 17, 1911



HAS TENDERED RESIGNATION
Frank Muther Relinquishes Position

Frank Muther, Sr., who has been chief of the Santa Rosa fire department for several years past, has tendered his resignation of that position. Few men have ever served the City of Roses who have been better qualified in their respective departments than Mr. Muther, as chief of the fire department. He has been engaged in that work for many years, and has the matter of quenching conflagrations down to a science. The people of Santa Rosa have learned to regard Frank Muther as one of the most efficient chiefs on the Pacific coast, and he was always on hand where duty called, and in the thickest of the fray. At the time of the big fire here in April, 1906, he made a record for himself in the handling of the department.

- Santa Rosa Republican, April 4, 1912



Here's a shocking discovery: Ernest Finley sometimes loosened his tie and became quite the fun guy.

The Press Democrat's editor and publisher hardly had a reputation as Good Times Ernie; aside from occasional mention in the papers about card game parties or Elks Lodge shindigs, he didn't appear to have any social life at all. And when did he have the time? He was Santa Rosa's constant champion, tireless Chamber of Commerce booster and unapologetic defender of the status quo, sometimes locked in mudslinging combat with critics and reformers (see "The Many Wars of Ernest Finley").

(RIGHT: Ernest L. Finley portrait in History of Sonoma County, California: Its People and its Resources, 1937)

All this makes it quite the surprise to read about the silly wager he made in 1911. After several years of depressed prices, the hops market rebounded that year. At the public auction Finley joked he wished he everyone in audience could get in on the boom, and the widow of a late friend offered to give him a bale of hops – but only if he would personally wheelbarrow it the ten miles from the farm to Santa Rosa. Finley accepted the deal.

Thus a couple of hours after sunset on November 6, Ernest Latimer Finley was prepared to start his trek with a customized newspaper handcart. "Mayor James R. Edwards and Hilliard Comstock had placed the bale on the cart and firmly lashed it in place," the Press Democrat later reported, in the first of two stories on the event. "A number of friends motored out to the Woodward ranch Monday evening to witness the outcome. The start was made at 6:30 and an an elaborate picnic was served by the roadside about half-way in. A large party of young people walked the entire distance cheering the man with the cart on his way." The headline from another paper read, "SOCIETY GIRLS WALK UNTIL MIDNIGHT ON FREAK BET".

Finley and his society girls reached the Press Democrat office shortly after midnight. "Don't say anything about this in the paper," Finley ordered his city editor. But an article appeared over his objection because the paper's staff "thought the story too good to be kept out." An item about the "freak bet" was picked up by the wire service and some newspapers nationwide ran it as a kind of believe-it-or-not item, the number of society girls sometimes growing to the size of a mob and the hop bale becoming as heavy as bricks.

The following day a special auction was held for Finley's bale. Milton Wasserman, the top hops buyer in town, bought it at the record price of $125 – but with the requirement that Finley continue his travails and personally cart the hops from downtown to the warehouse.

With his windfall Finley treated his youthful entourage to a weekend in San Francisco, including tickets to the Stanford-Cal football game.* Enjoying two nights of theater and suppers at his expense were a dozen twenty-something young people, nine of them women, along with two of their mothers. Among the party were Hilliard Comstock and Ruth Woolsey, whom Finley would marry about a year later.

Since the doings offer a rare personal glimpse of Mr. Santa Rosa, it's tempting to wonder what it reveals about him. For example, Finley was still a bachelor at age 41 and slightly more than twice Ruth's age; was he simply trying to woo his future wife with the machismo handcart stunt and treating her gang to a swell time? And were there other evenings, occupied with less savory events, when Finley staggered into the Press Democrat office late and ordered staff "Don't say anything about this in the paper"?

But the striking part of the hops story was the crowd of young people who thought it would be fun to follow him as he plodded along the country roads with the cart. Does that sort of thing sound familiar? It should, because it still occurs all over America today; now it usually just happens in school settings. A principal challenges kids to achieve some goal with the promise to do something silly or demeaning as a reward – maybe shaving off hair or singing from the rooftop if the students read a certain number of books or collect enough cans for a food drive. Google for "school principal bets students" and you'll find hundreds of recent examples. Let's revel in an intimidating authority figure playing the clown for us.

Actually, regarding Ernest Finley as Santa Rosa's self-appointed Town Principal works surprisingly well. In his editorials he often came off like a rigid fuddy-duddy demanding miscreants and rebels toe the line. He could be a disagreeable bully, raging when authority was not respected – criticism of the town or its leadership was a serious offense and the Press Democrat had a pattern of defaming anyone who crossed him (or the Democratic party, for that matter). Childish misbehavior was inflated by the PD in par with serious crimes, from stealing eggs to dropping orange and banana peels on the sidewalk. In his official portraits he even looked like a stern school principal; he attempted a smile in a later photograph, but it was more like the surprised expression of someone who had just sat on a tack. You didn't want to be called down to his office and hear the speech about how much he was disappointed in your monkey business and threatening suspension If You Do That Just One More Time.

Whatever conclusions one draws (or presumes to draw) from the hop cart episode, it's still a cute story in its own right. It is also one that was almost lost; if not for transcriptions in Ann M. Connor's self-published 1970 book, "McDonald Avenue: A Century of Elegance," I would never have noticed the articles – the related microfilm at the Sonoma County Library is illegible. As seen to the right, the emulsion is almost completely wiped off on the image of this page from November 8, and what remains is badly scratched. Normally damaged film can be read by later use of heavy image processing but in this case there was almost nothing to work with. Sadly, much of the 1911 Press Democrat microfilm at the library is in equally terrible condition. I am certain there were many interesting stories from that year I also overlooked.

Alas, the Connor book does not list sources; the auction story was only identified to be the same as in the the damaged Press Democrat microfilm by its bold headline. Two of the other articles she transcribed were not from either Santa Rosa paper, so it's unknown where they first appeared.

* The "Big Game" was actually rugby between 1906-1914, a period when many schools dropped football because of concerns over game violence and player injuries. Cal won that year, 21-3.


Photo courtesy Sonoma County Library





SOCIETY GIRLS WALK UNTIL MIDNIGHT ON FREAK BET
Trudge Dusty Roads to Cheer on Clubman Wheeling Bale of Hops

For eleven miles along the dusty roads from the county home of the late surveyor of the Port of San Francisco, Edward F. Woodward of Mt. Olivet, and Ernest L. Finley, editor of the Santa Rosa Press and well known clubman, wheeled a cart containing a 192 lb. bale of hops, winning a wager whereby a party of young society people will attend the Stanford-Berkeley football game and enjoy a banquet in San Francisco.

The start was made about 7 p.m. last night and Finley completed his task shortly after midnight. He came into town with his cart of hops, to be sold and the proceeds devoted to paying the expenses of a trip to the football game and a dinner for a party of his friends if he would wheel the gift to Santa Rosa.

The wager was taken up and tonight when the bale was auctioned off in the presence of a large crowd of speculators, it realized over $100. Some of Santa Rosa's popular society girls and several men walked the entire distance with Mr. Finley. Halfway to town the entire company enjoyed a picnic in the moonlight.

- Source unknown, November 7, 1911; from Connor book, pg. 70 (see text)



WINS BALE OF HOPS ON WAGER
E. L. Finley Wheels Hand Cart Along Dusty Road for Over Ten Miles Monday Night

As the result of a wager, E. L. Finley  on Monday evening wheeled a handcart containing a bale of hops from the Woodward ranch near Mt. Olivet to Santa Rosa, arriving at the Press Democrat office a few minutes after midnight. The distance covered was something over ten miles. The hops weighed 132 pounds.

Under the terms of the agreement Mrs. E. F. Woodward and Miss Bess Woodward were to make Mr. Finley a present of a bale of hops provided he got them to market unassisted, the hops to be sold and the proceeds devoted to taking a party of friends to the Stanford-Berkeley football game on Saturday.

A number of friends motored out to the Woodward ranch Monday evening to witness the outcome. The start was made at 6:30 and an an elaborate picnic was served by the roadside about half-way in. A large party of young people walked the entire distance cheering the man with the cart on his way.

Several taxicabs and automobile loads of people drove out and met the man with the load of hops and the party accompanying him several miles from this city. It was a very merry salutation given, too. Cheers stirred the midnight air when the hops were landed at the Press Democrat office.

The bale of hops will be auctioned off today and they will fetch the top notch figure. Considerable lively bidding is expected, too. Those hops should be worth at least one hundred dollars.

"Don't say anything about this in the paper," said Editor Finley as he started for home at an early hour this morning, still walking by the way. But the city editor and staff thought the story too good to be kept out, and would not heed the request of the man who won the wager.

- Press Democrat, November 7, 1911



SPIRITED BIDDING MARKS SALE OF HOPS AT AUCTION
Unique Transaction is Completed Here Last Night

Milton L. Wasserman, the well-known representative for the William Ullman Co. of New York, established a new price for hops last night at the Press Democrat office, when, at a spirited contest, he purchased at auction the bale of hops wheeled in the night before by Ernest Finley from "Pinecrest", Mrs. E. F. Woodward's fine ranch near Mt. Olivet.

The price at which the bale was finally knocked down to Mr. Wasserman was $125, and it was made part of the agreement that Mr. Finley was to personally deliver the hops to the warehouse, starting from the courthouse at noon today.

John P. Overton actioned as auctioneer...

...Just as the hammer was descending for the last time, and as Mr. Overton lingered over the words "going, going...!", Wasserman made his final bid, coupled with the stipulation that Mr. Finley should wheel the bale down Fourth Street today at noon. Mr. Finley nodded his acceptance of the proposition, the auctioneer from his exalted position on the office counter made a few more passes with his hammer, called upon Mr. Finley to bear him out in his assertion that the hops about to be sold were "extra heavy for the weight" and assured prospective purchasers that the goods were being sold "F.O.B. Santa Rosa, which is very different from having to bring them in from Mr. Olivet," ending by finally knocking them down to Mr. W. at the price stated. The result was greeted with hearty cheers from the large crowd present, as was each successive bid, for that matter.

A huge bonfire was then lighted in the street outside, and after another round of cheers and an exchange of felicitations, the crowd dispersed. (Referenced as first in Tuesday's paper of the wager.) Mr. Finley jokingly remarked that if he had 600 or 700 bales of hops unsold at the present prices, he would give the crowd one and tell them to go and see the fun. Mrs. Woodward replied that she would furnish the hops if Mr. Finley would wheel them to Santa Rosa.

The proposition was immediately accepted, and the following evening finally agreed upon as the time for making the attempt. An ordinary newspaper cart to which shaft handles had been temporarily attached by C. R. Sund, a local blacksmith, was used for transporting the bale selected, which weighted 192 lbs., and the distance covered was something more than 10 miles.

The start was made at 7:30 Monday evening, after Mayor James R. Edwards and Hilliard Comstock had placed the bale on the cart and firmly lashed it in place, and the event was made the occasion for a moonlight picnic party, a number of friends accompanying Mr. Finley the entire distance on foot, while others followed or proceeded in automobiles. At the top of the Mr. Olivet hill an elaborate picnic was spread and a stop of more than an hour was made. Refreshments were also served from the automobiles enroute.

The party arrived in town shortly after midnight, after a delightful evening, and Mr. Finley suffered no inconvenience whatever from the trip. Among those making up the party were Mayor & Mrs. Jas. Edwards...and Hilliard Comstock.

- Press Democrat, November 8, 1911



GIRLS GO TO FOOTBALL ON A BIG BALE OF HOPS
(At least, going on proceeds of bale that plucky editor wheeled 11 miles.)

A party of Santa Rosa society girls arrived at the Hotel Stewart last night on their way to attend the football game at Stanford U. today as the guests of Ernest Finley, editor of the Santa Rosa Press, who is paying, etc...

Later - Friday evening the entire party took dinner at Coppa's restaurant and then attended the Orpheum, where they occupied loges during the performance, a supper at the Portola following. Saturday they proceeded to Stanford U. and were entertained at the Kappa Alpha fraternity for luncheon, after which the game was attended.

Coming back into San Francisco, a dinner at Taite's was followed by the party attending the Cort Theater and enjoying the performance of Sam Barnard, the noted Dutch comedian. Techau's completed the pleasure of Saturday. The party included Mrs. E. F. Woodward, Mrs Frank Woolsey, Miss Bess Woodward, Miss Helen Wright, Miss Jean Geary, the Misses Ruth, Louise and Helen Woolsey, Janet Noble, Dora and Marian Pierson, Hilliard Comstock, Arthur Wright, E. W. Scott and Ernest Finley. They were joined Saturday evening by the Jas. Edwards and the Vernon Goodwins of Los Angeles.

- Source unknown, November 11, 1911; from Connor book, pg. 71-72 (see text)

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