And so it came to pass: On election day 1912, a swath of the county declared alcohol welcome no more.
It would be more than seven years before prohibition was imposed upon the entire nation, but the unincorporated parts of the second district voted to ban sale and possession of alcohol, making it one of three areas in the Bay Area that went "dry" in 1912. At the time the second district was a north-south strip west of the Laguna, from Graton to Petaluma. About a dozen saloons and roadhouses were forced to close but the ban did not affect the incorporated towns of Petaluma or Sebastopol, which were also in the district.
(RIGHT: Our first speakeasy? In 1913 the Sonoma County sheriff raided the Electric Hotel in Forestville for having alcohol in the "dry" district. As seen in this c. 1910 photo, the hotel was directly across from the electric railway depot. Image courtesy the Western Sonoma County Historical Society)
Both Santa Rosa newspapers said the vote to ban booze was expected, and not just because of moral objections against alcohol. "Residents of that district believe that prosperity will come in greater quantity with the elimination of the saloons," the Santa Rosa Republican editorialized. "They anticipate seeing large numbers of settlers becoming their neighbors who object to living in localities where saloons are tolerated."
This law had a ripple effect; the day after the election, the Supervisors revoked the liquor license for Jacob Kobler's long-established saloon at Woolsey Station (about the intersection of River Road/Olivet and a stop for the train servicing the Russian River resorts). At the hearing the sheriff testified he had been called there several times because of brawls and fights, but the main charge was that he sold drinks to Indians and "half breeds" - more about this below. And that wasn't all; someone said they witnessed "four American women get happy through the booze at Kobler's place," a double infraction because women were not allowed to visit a saloon, much less "get happy." Thus the excuse to take away Mr. Kobler's right to do business was because he failed to discriminate against minorities or women, as the law required.
All of that still might have been overlooked - the Supervisors had tabled a previous complaint against him - but what seemed to stir the Supes into action this time was testimony from two farmers griping they weren't getting enough work out of their laborers during harvest time because they were lured away by the nearby watering hole. One complained about the "general demoralizing effect the saloon had on the prosperity of that section," according to the Republican, and "he estimated that thousands of dollars had been lost to the community by permitting Kobler to maintain the saloon there."
Taken together, the vote to make West County dry and the revoking of Kobler's license had the same reason - the notion that the saloons and roadhouses were causing financial harm. In West County it was said they were discouraging property sales; Kobler was supposedly reducing productivity. Money, not morality, closed the bars. That was not unusual. In the following years there would be ongoing skirmishes in the Sonoma county prohibition wars, and liquor laws were often really an excuse for someone to make a better profit or provide a reason to restrict something else, such as gambling, prostitution or dancing to popular music.
This conflict began in earnest soon after the 1906 earthquake and while I've written about those events piecemeal, going forward it will be good to review the overall backstory and some of the main players in it. To wit:
The first confrontation came when the 1907 Santa Rosa City Council debated allowing bars to stay open until ten at night. The forces of temperance wanted to keep the 8PM closing time plus adding complete shutdown on Sundays. The council meetings were packed; three churches adjourned Wednesday night prayer meetings so the faithful could attend and "watch as well as pray." From the pastors the Council heard a highly emotional plea. A petition was presented "...on behalf of the 2,000 boys and girls of this city, who are now exposed to the vile language often heard in front of the saloons" and it was widely presumed the churches were creating a blacklist of businesses refusing to sign. The saloons won that round and in the end it turned out to be much ado about not much - only 134 signed the petition.
With 1908 shaping up to be a major election year, there was a showdown between business-as-usual types and the "Municipal League," a loose coalition of prohibitionists, anti-corruption progressives, and voters angered over Santa Rosa's legalization of Nevada-style prostitution. Chamber of Commerce president and Press Democrat editor Ernest Finley called them agitators stirring up "hard feelings" in town with a secret agenda to turn Santa Rosa dry. Leading the reformers was Rolfe L. Thompson, an attorney and progressive politician who charged a tight group of "bosses" were controlling the town.
To show church-going voters the good ol' boys were willing to crack down on booze, they completely banned it for Indians. A county ordinance passed early that year made it a misdemeanor to "give liquor to a person who is even one-fourth of Indian blood, or to any person of Indian descent who lives or associates with persons of one-fourth or more Indian blood." And although that wording seemed so broad as to be unenforceable, Santa Rosa newspapers were regularly peppered in years following with little items about some guy serving sixty days or paying a steep fine for selling a bottle to a Native American. This was the law that closed Jacob Kobler's place.
Finley and the status quo won those local elections in 1908, but faced a greater threat three years later when the state passed the Local Option Law (AKA "The Wyllie Act"), which allowed communities "to regulate or prohibit retail liquor business," and that usually boiled down to an up-or-down vote on whether to go "dry." Fighting hard to defeat it in the state senate was Louis Juilliard (D-Santa Rosa) who tried to amend the bill so that votes would be only cast by entire counties, which would have probably blocked prohibition passing anywhere in the state. It was the local option law that allowed the second district to vote itself dry, as explained above.
Also in 1911 women in California won the right to vote, in spite of a well-funded opposition campaign by the liquor industry, which feared suffrage would inevitably lead to passage of prohibition laws. This time Finley and the Press Democrat championed women's rights and allied with Rolfe L. Thompson along with other suffragists, most whom strongly supported prohibition.
Besides the second district in Sonoma county, about twenty California towns had ballot items in 1912 to decide if their community would go dry. Cloverdale held a series of spirited public meetings; at the weekend rally before the vote, Andrea Sbarboro, the founder of the Italian Swiss Colony in Asti, made a rare public appearance to speak against the proposal. In the end the township of Cloverdale voted for leaders who promised to clean up the saloons - particularly gambling and serving liquor to minors - but rejected outright prohibition by an almost 2:1 majority. Overall, about half of the towns voting on alcohol went dry; in the Bay Area, only Los Gatos and Mountain View closed their saloons. Women did not vote as an anti-alcohol bloc after all; "FEMALE OF SPECIES AS THIRSTY AS THE MALE," quipped the Santa Rosa Republican headline.
There are eleven precincts whose residents will vote on the proposed abolition of the liquor traffic in that section. These include Bloomfield, Blucher, Hessel, Pleasant Hill, Molino, Graton, Forestville, Marin, Wilson, Two Rock and Magnolia. In the district there are fourteen other precincts, eleven being in Petaluma and three in Sebastopol. As these are incorporated towns, their inhabitants cannot vote on the matter.
For some time past both sides of the controversy have been more than active in behalf of their beliefs. Rev. A. C. Bane, the well known Anti-saloon League worker, has been spending some time in the district making addresses against the saloon and telling the people of the importance of abolishing it in their midst. For the other side Secretary F. T. Stoll of the Grape Growers' Association of California and Senator A. S. Ruth of Olympia, Washington, are making addresses all over the territory. Assisting Rev. Bane in his efforts to defeat the saloon are T. H. Lawson of Oakland, W. P. Rankin of Sebastopol, A. L. Paul of Petaluma and others.
Mr. Stoll's addresses are on the subject, "The Effect of Local Option on Sonoma County's Wine Industry." Those of Senator Ruth are "Prohibition a Failure." These gentlemen have covered the territory completely and have spoken a number of times in each precinct.
Rev. Bane has been engaged in the work of fighting the saloons for many years past, and is the leader of the opposition to the thirst emporiums. He is a talented and forceful speaker, and his services have been in demand all over the state in the effort to bring prohibition. Mr. Stoll is likewise a bright speaker, and he has done much work to prevent various sections of the state going dry where local option elections have been held in the past.
The prediction is freely made by those who claim to be in close touch with the situation that the district will go into the prohibition column when the votes have been counted.
Before election day it was pretty generally conceded that the supervisoral district would vote for "no license," and by a safe majority. Within the next ninety days the will of the people as expressed at the polls yesterday will become effective, and the dozen or so bars in the territory in the district outside of the incorporated towns of Sebastopol and Petaluma, including several roadhouses, will go out of business. The vote by precincts was as follows:
Residents of that district believe that prosperity will come in greater quantity with the elimination of the saloons. They anticipate seeing large numbers of settlers becoming their neighbors who object to living in localities where saloons are tolerated. As a result of Tuesday's election saloons in the incorporated cities of Sebastopol and Petaluma are the only ones of the district that can continue in business.
The Petaluma Independent has the following to say in regard to the wet and dry question:
"Reliable information has reached this office to the effect that the local option forces in Sonoma county, encouraged by their success in the Second district, are prepared to invoke the initiative to bring about a 'wet' and 'dry' election throughout the county. Headquarters are to be opened at once in Santa Rosa and a vigorous campaign will be waged by the 'drys.' We are not at liberty to disclose at present the source of our information, but we have it from one that is absolutely reliable.
"Indications are that the campaign will be bitterly fought on both sides and neither will lack for funds to carry the fight.
"The elections in the First and Second districts are regarded as merely preliminary skirmishes, designed to test out the strength of the contestants in their respective strongholds. As the 'wets' polled a majority of only 254 in the First district against a 'dry' majority of 418 in the Second, the advantage is, for the time at least, with the latter."
Rev. E. B. Ware has prepared the draft of the new ordinance which he has done at the instance of the Good Government League and as its representative. Unless the Board of Trustees shall agree to the adoption of the same, the League proposes to have it adopted through the initiative and will press the matter to an issue at once.
The new ordinance is drafted along similar lines to that at Sebastopol. There will be no frosted windows if it is made effective and all the saloons will have plain glass fronts, that passers-by may see who is drinking at the bar; card playing will be eliminated and other features are incorporated in the new law.
Hugh McConnell of the Electric Hotel at Forestville was arrested and charged with selling beer, although he claimed it was near beer. Between twenty-five and thirty bottles of whiskey were also found in the search of the premises, which is a violation of the Wylie [sic] Local Option law in itself without any attempt being made to sell it.
The saloon of C. L. Curtis at Graton was also searched, and while the proprietor was absent two cases of beer were found and several cases of near beer. Mr. Curtis will have the opportunity to explain in court his side of the case later.
McConnell was brought to Sebastopol where he put up $100 cash bail to appear when the case was called. He owns the property, and only a light bail was enacted.
The little item in a 1912 Press Democrat was a puzzler. A man in upstate New York had written about seeing a poster that read:
|Coming to Plattsburg--An Official Exhibit from Napa, Lake, Marin, Sonoma and Mendocino Counties, just north of San Francisco Bay, in California, with a monster elephant Shark 36 feet long, weight 10,383 pounds, 460 years old. Also an octopus or devil fish; a California ostrich, and one thousand curiosities from Land and Sea.|
It was no hoax; that was part of an ad for an official exhibit traveling the Midwest and East Coast between 1909 and 1915, supposedly introducing hundreds of thousands to the agricultural wonders of Sonoma and other North Bay counties. It never toured in the West and was rarely mentioned in any of the local newspapers; probably only a small number of people here knew about it at all, unless Aunt Myrtle from Altoona visited her Santa Rosa relatives and begged to see an ostrich ranch. And although it was a pricey operation to maintain, probably none of the groups writing checks to support the promotion thousands of miles away realized how damned strange it really was.
Our story began in San Francisco during the 1880s, where "Mon" Leak was president of the very successful Leak Glove Manufacturing Co. Before joking that "Leak Glove" seems like a really poor choice for a company name, understand he came from a family with a history of really poor names choices; not only was Mon's full monicker "Mondula" but his father was Crapo Leak, having changed his surname as a young man from "Lake." Perhaps he was unclear which part brought such mirth to sniggering children.
Mon exploited the odd family name in his other business, the Leak Advertising Company. Curious why horse water troughs all over Los Angeles had "Leaks" painted on the side, a reporter tracked down Mon for an 1890 interview and learned he had crews running about painting every available fence, wall or water trough with his name or an ad for one of his six clients. He was something of a advertising genius, insofar as recognizing he could blanket a city with a platoon of low-paid sign painters cranking out the same few ads in a kind of mass production.
(RIGHT: The Leak railcars as seen in newspaper ads from 1909-1915)
It's likely Mon got the idea for both businesses from his father. The 1860 census lists Crapo as a painter in Johnstown, NY which is next door to Gloversville, where almost everyone in town had some job in the glove-making trade during the 19th century. Crapo was also awarded an 1890 patent for an improved sewing machine part that would make it easier to stitch things like gloves and a couple of years later Mon followed his poppa's lead again, this time getting his own patent on a railway car outfitted to haul around a crew of painters, with hinged bedding platforms that folded up during the day allowing it to be used to demonstrate advertiser's products and hand out samples. Best of all it had its own generator, allowing the train car to be brightly lit both inside and out by dozens of light bulbs. It must have caused quite a sensation in the 1890s when the shebang pulled into a rural community where electricity was still something of a novelty. Again, he was kind of a genius.
Here I must interrupt Mondula's tale to fill in some of the research backstory. When I first read that Press Democrat item I presumed it was a gag - either someone was spoofing the PD or editor Ernest Finley was presenting a "quaint" to give readers a laugh (for more, read "That Can't be True"). But when I Googled on that odd detail of precisely "10,383 pounds," I was gobsmacked to find ads that almost exactly matched the item, and through Ben Truwe's rich archive "Southern Oregon History, Revised" I was introduced to the crafty Mr. Leak. His essay, "Mondula Leak and the Sign on the Wall" provides details which are just sketched here, particularly concerning the years before and after Mon was promoting the North Bay. There are photos of Mon, diagrams of the railcars, the legend of the lucky beans and much more. It's a good read.
Sources found by Ben Truwe state the luxe railcar cost $30,000 (about $750 thousand today) but it wouldn't be built until 1891, when Mon landed a sustaining backer: The county of Placer. For five hundred bucks a month, Mon painted "Placer County on Wheels" on the side. Locals visiting the train were shown a gold-flecked rock, Placer County fruit and told what a swell place it was. That, however, was in addition to his regular promotions. An Oregon paper described what awaited those lured in by free hot popcorn and peanuts: "People were admitted to the car and served hot chocolate as an advertisement for the house that manufactures the cocoa, and then after examining the display they were ushered out the other end of the car carrying armloads of samples of baking powder, newspapers, cocoa, germea, axle grease, etc."
Mon and his wife, Hannah, had a private room at one end but the rest of the train car must have been crowded at nights, with about two dozen men sleeping on their retractable bunks. Besides all the painters there was a bookkeeper, stenographer, electrician and cook. (Did I mention the car also had a coal oil stove which was used in cooking demos? And after a few years of living on the rails he was granted a couple of more patents dealing with food storage on a train.)
There were no further mentions of the painters after 1892, so presumably Mon shut down that side of his operations. No one could blame him; it must have been quite a headache. Besides being in close quarters with so many men for so long there was the logistical problems of running that kind of business from a train in an era when telephones were rare. Mon had no locomotive, so there were ongoing scheduling needs to arrange for the Leak patented car and their baggage car to be hooked up to trains on different railroads. Seeking permissions to paint a fence or side of a barn probably required a savvy advance man, and there had to be a local manager to arrange transit for the painters and handle other services. And while playing California Ambassador would be fun, playing nursemaid to twenty guys with the flu in a rail car without a toilet, would not.
The three-year deal with Placer County ended in 1894 and the train became "Santa Clara County on Wheels" in short order, which it would remain for more than a decade. The major change was that besides county ag products, Mon was only pushing "Schilling's Pure California Wines" (a San Francisco dealer who relabeled a wide variety of wines produced all over California). Gone were the days when visitors lumbered away with armloads of baking powder, axle grease, etc.
Then in 1897, a single sentence was added to the end of his usual newspaper blurb: "Another car, to which a small admission fee is charged, contains a whale."
Um, a whale from land-locked Santa Clara County? Well, sure, why not; the premise for the exhibit was that visitors wouldn't know squat about California. Later ads mentioned it was caught in Monterey Bay, but who is Oshkosh knew Monterey Bay wasn't in Santa Clara (or Placer, for that matter). And besides, Mon wasn't claiming it was from the sponsoring county, so it wasn't his fault if people jumped to the wrong assumption. Right?
Truwe's history web site offers transcriptions of many ads and articles over the following years showing how things devolved. The whale was rechristened a "monster elephant shark" (it was actually a basking shark) and it began eating up more of the attention; San Jose peaches and prunes were no match to gazing down the yawning maw of a shark that seemingly could swallow you up in a gulp.
Soon ads referred to the second car as the "California Marine Museum" and besides the shark weighing precisely 10,383 pounds ("large enough to feed a multitude of people") papers said there were "many other rare specimens of marine monsters, such as a man-eating shark, weighing 460 pounds, sea angel or flying shark, sea sturgeon, baboon fish." Another write-up promised "a monkey-faced owl, an alligator and several monkeys, alive." For a while there was an X-ray machine, where "one can see the bones in his hands and arms." It must have been quite the letdown to move to the next train car and find yourself facing a pile of big sugar beets that are supposed to be impressive because.
It was free to see the fruit, but if you wanted to enter the other car with the zoo/freak show "a small admission fee of 10 cents is charged to keep out objectionable characters." Later it would bump up to 25¢ which was worth about six bucks today, but that's not a fair comparison; a quarter was the price of premium entertainment - a ticket to the circus or a decent seat at a very good vaudeville theater.
Starting in 1905 the sponsor changed to Stanislaus County, but by then mention of the county was cursory in newspaper ads. The shark was always the headliner, with side attractions including a live alligator (!) a California ostrich (presumably stuffed) and "Peruvian Cavies" (guinea pigs) which he called, "the cutest little animals known of." Every visitor was given a souvenir, such as a sea shell or lucky bean. And about that: Before the train arrived the local papers often ran a paid story placement about the time his "old sailor friend Seth" was spared by savage South Sea cannibals once they saw he had a rare and sacred sea bean. With that tall tale, it can be said Mondula Leak had fully embraced his inner P. T. Barnum.
From the 1909 Ukiah papers we find word that Mon had signed a contract with the North Bay Counties Association, a kind of super Chamber of Commerce across five counties (in 1925 it morphed into the Redwood Empire Association, growing to nine counties including Josephine in Oregon). To the exhibit was now added "the creations of Luther Burbank" - apparently just spineless cactus - and redwood bark. The souvenir was usually a "novelty made of the California Big Trees", a pampas plume (then grown commercially around Santa Barbara) or a lucky bean, "People of North of Bay Counties Hope to Please You," chirped a frequent tagline in the ads.
The contributions from all our local Chambers and trade groups added up to $400-600 per month, but that money was just cake icing; with an admission of 25¢ (15¢ for kids) and several hundred visitors a day, their take must have been around $5,000/mo. Presume the Leaks lived well.
What they needed from the counties, however, was the cloak of legitimacy. With miscellaneous ag products displayed under county and state banners, it could be claimed the exhibit was "educational;" otherwise, it was just oddities better belonging in a carnival sideshow. Some communities even might have banned them.
But here's the interesting question: Did anyone in the North Bay - or before then, anyone in Stanislaus or Santa Clara counties - know the main attraction was not their lovely produce, but instead a stuffed shark?
(RIGHT: A 1915 ad from near the end of the North Bay promotion)
Three articles in San Rafael and Ukiah papers from 1909 and 1910 offered lengthy reviews of the exhibit culled from midwestern newspapers, undoubtedly provided by Mon Leak. Not one of them mentioned the shark or any other of the curiosities, although every other review found in online historical papers prominently mentions the animal displays, often describing them in detail. One can only assume Mon edited the reviews or wrote them himself to keep his patrons in the dark.
The North Bay promotion ended in 1915, and next up was "Georgia on Wheels." (Yes, there was still "a monstrous shark," but its California origin was apparently dropped.) This tour was short lived. The national railway system was near standstill with its heaviest traffic in history because of the run-up to WWI. Also, Mon was now 65.
In 1917 he reinvented himself again, this time turning his advertising model upside down. If he could no longer bounce from town to town, he would stay in one place and expect the towns to come to him via the "Southeastern Exhibit Association," with its year-round display of Georgia products (no mention of any sharks, though). Announcing their four-story exhibit hall in downtown Atlanta, Mon boasted to a reporter his field organization built a network of enthusiastic supporters eager to promote the state. Unfortunately, when he retired two years later, leadership passed to Edward Young Clarke, the Imperial Wizard of the Ku Klux Klan. Clarke is credited with reshaping the Klan via a greatly expanded, dues-paying membership - in other words, he followed Mon Leak's Association model, using a field organization to build a network of enthusiastic supporters eager to promote hate.
Mon and Hannah retired to West Palm Beach, Florida, where he died in 1924. That's the end of the story, except for several Believe-it-or-Not angles.
His mother, Caroline, was actually the most famous member of the family, being the key witness in the sensational murder trial of Theodore Durrant, an 1895 San Francisco serial killer dubbed "The Demon of the Belfry." His poppa, Crapo, returned to his old stomping grounds around Gloversville, New York, where he was arrested in 1896 for "enticing young girls into his place for immoral purposes." Crapo was running a "disorderly house," according to the local papers, which was usually a polite way of saying it was a brothel. When he was sentenced to five years in prison for abduction all the newspapers in the area called him a "notorious divekeeper."
And then there was our famous shark; to my astonishment, I was able to discover its origins. Before Mon whipped up that stupid lucky bean story, he used to pay newspapers to print his item about how the shark was caught:
|Yesterday as Captain Emanuel Feress of the fishing smack Garibaldi was about to tack and sail for port he had an adventure with a monster shark that the crew will long remember. They had turned toward shore when a commotion commenced in the water, and instantly the ropes holding the net tightened and the smack started off at a rapid gait, the waves washing over the deck. The crew were thoroughly frightened and wanted to cut loose, but Captain Feress kept cool and ordered them to stand ready for whatever it was that had hold of them, and for half an hour no one knew what was going to happen. They could see nothing, but they were going away, and some invisible power had hold of the boat. Then a big black object came suddenly to the top, jumping clear out of the water, trying to loosen himself, then started for the shore, and soon had run into the bar and the tide left him high and dry, and they could then see what it was that had nearly scared the life out of them, a monster shark measuring 36 feet, the largest anyone on this coast had ever seen.|
That story supposedly first appeared in the Monterey Herald on April 20, but the year kept slipping forward; in his earliest account it happened in 1887, then 1895, then 1905. But while every single detail was a lie, he did tell the truth about the date at the beginning: It was caught in April of 1887. That was ten years before Mon Leak began hauling it around the country, and when he stopped showing it off the shark had been dead for thirty years.
I could not find out what happened to the shark - likely it went off to a Georgia carnival, saloon or a collector with lots of space over his mantle - but I'm sure Mondula hated to sell. It had inspired nightmares for countless kids, but once upon a time it had inspired a glove maker to become a kind of showman.
Very Like a Whale.
A very large shark was towed into port yesterday by the San Vicente. It was caught in Monterey Bay by the fishing steamer U. S. Grant. It is about thirty-five feet long, measures twenty feet in circumference and weighs nearly five tons. When the huge carcass was brought alongside the wharf it was with considerable difficulty hoisted on a large dray drawn by six horses and taken to Central Park, where it is now on exhibition.
- Daily Alta California, April 29, 1887
AN ORDOROUS SHARKRenders the Existence of Policeman Fitzhenry Unhappy
Policeman Fitzhenry filed a complaint yesterday with the Board of Health against the proprietors of the shark that was captured near Monterey last week, and whose cadaver is now on exhibition in a tent at Central Park. As the monster weighs more than five tons and is fully thirty feet long, such a mass of putrescent blubber is offensive to the nose of Policeman Fitzhenry. A posse of reporters inspected the remains yesterday afternoon, and instead of being nauseated by the decomposition of cold shark meat were fumigated with carbolic acid as thoroughly as to pass muster even with the new Board of Health.
- Daily Alta California, May 3, 1887
GEE! BUT THIS IS SOME BOOSTEastern Relative Sends Santa Rosans Copy of Startling Announcement in New York
A card from Jos. Kellogg, brother of F. H. and Chas. Kellogg of Santa Rosa, instructor in agriculture at Cornell University, and who is now putting in his vacation in a walking tour through the New England States, reports that in Plattsburg, New York, he found the inhabitants considerably stirred by posters all over the town bearing the following legend:
"Coming to Plattsburg--An Official Exhibit from Napa, Lake, Marin, Sonoma and Mendocino Counties, just north of San Francisco Bay, in California, with a monster elephant Shark 36 feet long, weight 10,383 pounds, 460 years old. Also an octopus or devil fish; a California ostrich, and one thousand curiosities from Land and Sea."
- Press Democrat, August 11, 1912
All was quiet that midsummer evening in 1912 Santa Rosa, except for two dozen guys trashing the Chinese neighborhood on Second street.
The men were not thugs from a San Francisco Chinese crime gang, although just a few months earlier the community here worried that a Tong war underway in the city would escalate and draw "highbinder" assassins to Santa Rosa. Nor was the havoc caused by a mob of local drunks looking for trouble. Descending on Second street that night was an official posse of lawmen and sworn citizens conducting the first opium raid in Santa Rosa.
(RIGHT: 1908 Sanborn map section showing Santa Rosa's Chinatown highlighted in blue)
A lengthy account of the raid appeared in the Press Democrat (transcribed below) and offers a glimpse of the small Chinatown near the intersection of Second and D streets, rare because it was never mentioned in the local newspapers except for occasional calls for it to be torn down and replaced with a park, hospital or something Burbank-related.
The excuse for terrorizing the community and ransacking their homes was the new law outlawing opium use in California - apparently the first time personal possession of drugs or drug paraphernalia was criminalized in U. S. history. The law was passed in 1909 and appealed up to the state Supreme Court, where it was upheld in 1911. Shortly after that Chinatown raids began in larger cities across the state. The posse raid in Santa Rosa was coordinated to start jointly with raids in Sebastopol and Petaluma Chinatowns.
Even though opium possession was only a misdemeanor subject to a $100 fine the posse gave no quarter in their quest, frisking the residents and tearing into everything they found. From the Press Democrat account, "Some half dozen places were entered, doors were locked and the Chinese occupants quickly herded into one room, and then the search began. Boxes, drawers, sacks, tins, paper packages, clothing, beds, and in short everything was overhauled and a thorough search made. Doors that were locked and for which keys were not delivered up at once, were burst open. So were trunks and boxes...pretty much of a litter remained after the officers had done their work."
The incident also revealed no improvement in anti-Chinese bigotry; the PD article ran through all its old racial epithets - "Celestials" being the kindest of them - but the most loathsome comment in the paper was this: "They all gave some kind of a name. There were Chows, Gows, Ons, Gees, Sams, Harrys and goodness knows what else. For all the officers knew some of those names may have been aliases, too. No one cared particularly anyway. The names all sounded alike."
The reporter further added his/her pissy little judgements of their lifestyle: They "do not smoke very good tobacco," smells in some bottles "were not over-appetizing" and "the lard in preparing the evening meal had not been of the freshest variety." In fact, many in the posse may have been there just to snoop and later snark about the quality of Chinese lard or such; while the party included every active and retired cop in town, other members had no apparent reason to be involved, including State Senator Herb Slater, undertaker Frank Welti and 20 year-olds Arley Gard and Ernest Clay.
In truth, the purpose of the whole business - from the federal import ban also enacted in 1909 down to the raids after 1911 - was meant to harass the Chinese community. The import ban only affected the smoking form of opium favored by Chinese - the opium-based "nerve tonics" predominantly used by whites were still legal.
Smuggling the four-ounce cans over from China proved easy; in her oral history with Gaye LeBaron, Song Wong Bourbeau (born 1909 in Santa Rosa) recalled "they ship them over just like you would ship a dozen eggs." All the ban accomplished was to quickly drive up the price tenfold; by 1912 a night's smoke cost around seven dollars, roughly half a working man's weekly wage and a couple of years later it would double again (MORE). To his credit, former U.S. Congressman from Santa Rosa Duncan McKinlay proposed to tax opium at $5 per pound, believing it was impossible to stop the smuggling trade.
Nor did the Santa Rosa police care about opium smoking before the new law made arrests so lucrative - although they did intervene when white youth were found using the drug, as shown in an example here. And while Santa Rosa had raided Chinatown before, then it was for gambling; in 1910 a series of raids busted Chinese men for playing stud poker (a charge which must have caused guffaws at card tables in saloons and fraternal clubs around town). But those fines brought in less that $250, while in that single opium posse raid the city cleared over $1,000. So it's no surprise that another posse hit the Santa Rosa opium dens in May 1913, this time making more arrests. Likewise in that search they gave "seven places on Second street...a most thorough overhauling." Because breaking stuff up is just something a posse has to do, as everyone knows.
HIGHBINDER SCARE IN SANTA ROSA CHINATOWN LAST NIGHT
Santa Rosa's Chinatown on Second street between Main and D streets was pretty badly scared Wednesday night. Talk of "Highbinder" was in the air, following the receiving of a telephone message from "My flen in Napa" by Wong Mow, one of the local Chinese merchants.
The word was passed around like wildfire. Chinese pickets were stationed here and there on the lookout app along the block in front of the Mongolian quartets, and Chief of Police Boyes was notified. The Chief instructed the patrolmen on the meats to make frequent visits during the night to Chinatown.
The message received by Wong Mow about half past 7 o'clock word that a party of Chinese highbinders from the warring companies in San Francisco were headed for Santa Rosa and were of the number who shot and killed a man in Marysville. The news was sufficient to put Chinatown all on the lookout.
At one o'clock this morning a Press Democrat representative visited Chinatown. The "lookouts" were still on duty. They were crouching down in the darkness of the shadow of buildings ready to sound an alarm...
...There are many San Francisco Chinese taking refuge here at the present time. A dozen queueless ones arrived here Wednesday night. They have been drifting in for a week...
- Press Democrat, March 21, 1912
STILL IN FEAR OF HIGHBINDERSCelestials in Local Chinatown Perturbed Over News of Tong Slayings in Other Places
The excitement in Santa Rosa's Chinatown following the highbinder murders in other cities was increased when the news of the slaying was told there yesterday, and last night the "lookouts" were still on duty. The local Celestials fear that the bad men may visit here.
The casual passerby along the block on Second street occupied by the Chinese quarters last night would not have noticed anything out of the ordinary except for the lookouts crouching in the dark shadow of some building. But the advent of a reporter or policeman known to some of the Chinese merchants was sufficient to draw a crowd of Chinese eager to learn if any news of the approach of the highbinders was forthcoming...
- Press Democrat, March 23, 1912
QUONG SING PROUD MAN ON SATURDAY
Quong Sing, the local merchant, was a happy man on Saturday, when he paraded at the head of the New Cathay Boys' Band from San Francisco. This band is composed of thirty-seven young Chinese who rendered some splendid selections during their march through the streets. These lads have only been playing five months, but they handle their instruments and their music like seasoned veterans. In the band are two lads of eight and nine years, who play the alto horns. Quong Sing is proud of the new China and the boys who were here on Saturday. He was instrumental in bringing the band to this city.
- Santa Rosa Republican, May 4, 1912
POSSES RAID CHINATOWN AND SEVEN ARRESTS MADERaids Also Made in Petaluma and SebastopolMore Arrests in Petaluma and Sebastopol--Opium and Yen She Found and a Number of Outfits on Wednesday Night
There was considerable excitement, quiet excitement at that, in Santa Rosa's Chinatown Wednesday night. The same can be said of the Chinatown of Sebastopol and that at Petaluma, for in all three places raids were made for opium, yen she and smoking outfits. In all three places both drugs, a number of pipes, hoy toys and other contrabrand articles were unearthed. Five Chinamen, a Chinese woman, and a white man were arrested and landed in jail by the officers, and their cases will come up for hearing in Justice Atchinson's court. One man was arrested in Sebastopol, and shortly before twelve o'clock he joined the motley crew behind the bars. Four arrests were made in Petaluma.
The raid in Santa Rosa's Chinatown, located on Second street, between Main and D streets, was headed by Chief of Police John M. Boyes and the officers of the department and of the Justice court, and special deputies aided by Chief Inspector Fred A. Sutherland of the State Board of Pharmacy of California. Sheriff Jack Smith and his posse, had charge of Sebastopol, and Deputy Sheriff Rasmussen and Chief of Police Ed Husler in Petaluma. Deputy Inspector W. T. White of the State Board aided in Sebastopol and Deputy A. J. McDonald of the State Board aided in Petaluma.
For some time the officers and the chief inspectors of the State Board have been aware of presence of the drug and its use in the Chinese quarters in the places named. The inspectors have obtained evidence, and not long since Chief Inspector Sutherland bought a dollars' worth at one of the places raided on Second street. Consequently the raid was planned for Wednesday night at half past nine o'clock in Santa Rosa, Sebastopol and Petaluma.
On Second street in this city at the word of command given by sign by Chief Boyes, the posse that had previous divided up entered the Chinese quarters very quietly, no one knowing what was about to transpire. Some half dozen places were entered, doors were locked and the Chinese occupants quickly herded into one room, and then the search began. Boxes, drawers, sacks, tins, paper packages, clothing, beds, and in short everything was overhauled and a thorough search made. Doors that were locked and for which keys were not delivered up at once, were burst open. So were trunks and boxes. A number of packages of Yen She, some tins of opium, pipes and smoking outfits and other accessories in the smoking of the weed were discovered by the various posses and were carefully piled up, and later this evidence was taken to the police station.
Then the Chinamen were each given a "frisk," or a search, and taken. At times, this was quite amusing, most of the Celestials taking the bantering in good part. Their language, too, had there been an interpreter present, might have savored of the profane. If it did not then, it will when they come to pack those boxes again and clean house, for pretty much of a litter remained after the officers had done their work. They all gave some kind of a name. There were Chows, Gows,Ons, Gees, Sams, Harrys and goodness knows what else. For all the officers knew some of those names may have been aliases, too. No one cared particularly anyway. The names all sounded alike.
Prior to entering the places the officers had provided themselves with search warrants, but none of the Chinese thought to ask for them, anyway. These warrants were procured so that everything might be legally done. It was after midnight before the raid ended here, the search occurring considerable time. Some of the scents discovered in the places during the overhauling of some of the ancient receptacles were not over-appetizing. More than one of the posse pressed into service can testify to that. Those "Chinks," some of them at any rate, do not smoke very good tobacco, either; and the lard in preparing the evening meal had not been of the freshest variety.
Another thing revealed during the search of several of the Second street "joints," was that the Chinese evidently do not put much faith in banks. A surprising lot of money was unearthed, and left of course. There were stacks of twenties, tens and fives in gold, as well as silver. The money will be put in another safe place by the Chinese today.
Attorney Rolfe L. Thompson will prosecute the offenders, representing the State Board. He was on hand at the raid Wednesday night, and at the police station when the prisoners were brought in.
Tried a Getaway
The white man, captured on a charge of having sold morphine, lives in this city, and has been a frequent habitant of the Chinese quarters. A warrant was in the pocket of Chief Boyes for his arrest, when he suddenly stepped into the very place where the Chief was assisting in the search. Police Officer George Matthews grabbed and handcuffed him. Later he tried a getaway but was captured by Attorney Thompson and Elmer Mobley, and was taken to the jail and locked up by Matthews.
The Santa Rosa posse was composed of Chief of Police Boyes, [21 other men named].
The Sebastopol Raid
As stated Sheriff Smith headed the raid at Sebastopol, and it was conducted along similar lines to the other places. Some Yen She and an opium outfit was taken from the place of Gong Gee. There was no excitement, and but a few Chinese were found at home. The idea prevailed there as here that in some manner the Chinese had got a "tip" as to what was about to happen. In Sheriff Smith's posse were [22 other men named].
Raid in Petaluma
Chief Hussler of Petaluma was assisted in the raid there by [5 other men named]. The net result of their work was the arrest of four Chinese and the capture of a considerable quantity of contraband materials and smoking outfits. Three of the Chinese were locked up and one released on $200 cash bail.
- Press Democrat, August 1, 1912
CHINESE PAY $450 FINESResult of Rain on Opium Dens Wednesday
Ten Chinamen appeared before Justice Atchinson Thursday, charged with having illicit drugs in their possession. This is the catch of the raids in Petaluma, Sebastopol and Santa Rosa, made on Wednesday night by the State Board of Health Inspectors.
The first to appear was Lou Yet of Sebastopol. He entered a plea of guilty and was promutly [sic] fined $100 by Justice Atchinson. The next were four Chinamen from Petaluma. They were considerably incensed over having to be tried here. They chattered and harangued for some time, but were unable to furnish the bail, and three of them were returned to jail to await developments. The other was dismissed. Attorney Gil P. Hall of Petaluma appeared for him on behalf of George P. McNear, explaining that he was only a cook and had just entered the place for a chat.
The five arrested here were promptly arraigned. They had little to say, but appeared to be very distressed. Sam Wo Lung was fined $200 on two charges. Wong Quong was fined $100 and Dock Yen $50 and fifty days in jail. Two others were dismissed for lack of evidence. One was a man and the other a woman. Harry Tong was returned to jail until such time as he could raise the money to pay his fine of $100.
Clint Rickliff, Ed Gautier and Earl Bumbaugh, the three white men captured in the raid on the Chinamen, are to be tried by Justice Atchinson also. These men are all known to be fiends and it is possible they will be sent to some asylum for treatment.
- Santa Rosa Republican, August 1, 1912
THREE LONE CHINAMEN REMAIN NOW
There are three lone Chinamen in the county jail at the present time as the left-overs from the recent opium rains in the county. All the other defendants have had their cases disposed of and something over $1,000 has been paid in fines. One of the Chinamen will serve 200 days in jail and the two others are in for one hundred days each. They will have to go a long time without their smokes.
- Press Democrat, August 8, 1912
OPIUM SMOKER IS CAPTUREDOfficers Gard and Ragain Arrest Sam Wo Lung While Engaged in Enjoyable Smoke
Officers Gard and Ragain made a very clever capture of an opium smoker and his entire outfit, including the yen shee, which he was heating on his needle preparatory to taking a smoke at 2 o'clock Thursday morning.
The victim of the raid was Sam Wo Lung, who was recently acquitted of having opium in his possession when captured in the last raid conducted under the direction of the State Board of Health. He is considered one of the leaders here and his capture with the goods on him is considered quite a victory for the officers.
When searched at the police station it was found that Sam Wo Lung was well provided with ready cash and he put up $100 cash bond with proper grace and returned to his place, 620 Second street, minus his pipe and outfit. A charge will be placed against him under the State law in Justice Atchinson's court.
- Press Democrat, October 16, 1912
CHINESE GAMBLERS CAUGHT IN A RAIDPolice Visit Doon Kee's Place Thursday Morning and Capture Six Visitors Playing American Game With the Stakes
Police Officers N. G. Yeager, A. G. Miller and G. W. Matthews made a raid on Doon Kee's place on Second street this morning about 2 o'clock and arrested nine Chinese found in the room. Six of the number were engaged in playing Studhorse porker [sic] and were greatly surprised at the interruption.
Officer Matthews was the first to reach the table and secured the cards and stakes, while Officer Miller secured the Chinese money being used for chips. All in the room were taken to police headquarters. Several denied they were playing, but none would say who the players were, so all were informed tht they would have to put up a cash deposit of $10 each to secure their liberty.
Doon Kee arrived on the scene, and after some parleying, secured the name of those who were not playing and they were immediately released while $10 cash bail was put up for each of the other six by Doon Kee.
The six charged with gambling were Ah Wong, Ah Ching, Ah Sing, Wong Kim, Sam Kee and Moon Kee.
- Press Democrat, December 1, 1910
ARREST CHINESE FOR GAMBLINGOfficers Make Third Raid Early Tuesday Morning and Gather in Fifteen Orientals
In their third raid upon the Chinese gamblers the police shortly after 2 o'clock this morning arresting 14 inmates of Doon Kee's gambling house. Last Thursday morning at about the same hour 12 Chinese were arrested and later six were fined $10 each for gambling.
Three of the same men were caught this morning and in their case $20 cash bail was demanded, while the other 11 were allowed their release upon $10 cash bail. A woman will also be charged with being in the place, making a total of $180 bail pending their hearing.
- Press Democrat, December 6, 1910
CHINESE CONTRIBUTE TO THE DISTRICT FAIR
Charlie Quong Sing, the pioneer Chinese merchant of Santa Rosa, whose smile and "Nice day, eh?" and "Anything new?" (the latter when he meets a newspaperman) have become regular salutations of everyday life in Santa Rosa, called at the Chamber of Commerce rooms on Wednesday and handed in a donation of two dollars and a half for the district fair.
He counseled Director Walter Price to tell Mr. Dunbar and the committee to call around at the place on Second street a day or two before the fair starts and he will go around with them among "the boys" and they will contribute more money to help the fair along.
- Press Democrat, August 7, 1913
Good news: Tom Gregory has written the definitive history of Sonoma county. Bad news: Tom Gregory has written the definitive history of Sonoma county.
The 1911 publication of a new county history was a cause for celebration. Over twenty years had passed since the last one and books such as these were the lifeblood of a region - part almanac, part who's who, part history. For boosters hoping to convince outsiders to live or do business here, it was something of a Bible.
It was a great advantage that the author was also local; Tom Gregory lived in Santa Rosa (his house is still there on the corner of Cherry and E). He was a former reporter and feature writer for the San Francisco newspapers as well as a pretty good poet and first rate humorist. He sometimes contributed to the Santa Rosa papers items both serious and goofy. Here's a 1910 letter:
|Gone. A Canadian 25ct piece which I received in change from somebody on the forenoon of August 16. That coin, minted with probably a million metal brothers, proved to be a mascot of limitless influence, a talisman of occult power, and I lost it by inadvertently passing it in trade on some person to me unknown. Anyone returning to me that magic piece of silver, which came from Canada, will receive the equivalent of its face value (in British territory) in the coin of U. Sam, and my glad hand forevermore.|
Tearfully, Tom Gregory.
Besides his considerable writing chops, he was a popular, maybe even beloved, fellow around town - see the full profile of Tom Gregory appearing here earlier - but he wasn't a scholar or historian as much as he was a storyteller. And that is why his Sonoma county history is so godawful.
Before diving into that issue, it must be said the rest of the book - the 558 biographies of local notables - is reliable (or at least, accurately states what the person paying for the profiles wanted known). That is a goldmine of information for genealogists and is primarily why the Gregory book is cited far more often than any other local history, including the modern one by Gaye LeBaron, et. al., "Santa Rosa, A Nineteenth Century Town." Tom Gregory might have edited and punched up some of those biographies, but it's doubtful he wrote any of them; typically that was grunt work done by a freelancer hired by the publisher.
But he bears full blame for the problems that discredit probably every page of the history section. Some of the misteaks could be mopped up with an errata, particularly wrong dates and places or hazy facts. He claimed, for example, the first Mexican settlers hoping to establish a colony in Sonoma were the last passengers aboard "the historic Natalia, the little brig in which Napoleon escaped from Elba" and which sunk in Monterey Bay in 1834. That ship's Napoleonic heritage was an often-repeated 19th century story, but as H. H. Bancroft wrote there was no proof of that (we now know with certainty it wasn't the same boat). Errors like this could have been easily avoided if Tom had fact-checked his book against Bancroft's famed history series - and the Santa Rosa Library, two blocks from his house, certainly had a copy of the complete set.
Unfortunately, there are other places where Gregory wanders too deep into the weeds to rescue. One of these passages was mentioned in the profile, where he made the ridiculous claim the term "gringo" was coined by Mexicans sick of hearing Americans endlessly singing "Green Grow the Rushes." At times like those his book resembles nothing more than the TV series "Drunk History," where someone is liquored-up and asked to tell the story of some great moment in history which they only half remember from school days.
Gregory's old newspaper, the San Francisco Call, produced a 3,000-word Sunday feature on his Sonoma county history (transcribed below) and it presents a good sampling of the book's accuracy problems, trivial and not-so:
| FORT ROSS Gregory started on a bad note by naming this book chapter "El Fuerte de los Rusos," a literal translation never used by anyone else; the Spanish and Mexicans called it "Presidio de Ross" (MORE). "Fort Ross" was an invention by the Americans.
Twice Gregory referred to the Greek Catholic chapel there, although every school kid who has taken the field trip knows they were Russian Orthodox. Gregory was presumably confused because both use the orthodox cross. This was no trivial error; the Greek Catholic church was banned in Russia until 1905, which falsely implies the Russian colonists were religious dissidents.
At their settlement the Russians made the first ships out of redwood, Gregory wrote, including a large brig that cost $60,000. It truthfully cost 60,000 rubles, not dollars, as noted by Bancroft, who also explained none of the boats were made out of redwood. The Russian shipbuilder used unseasoned local oak which quickly rotted, with none of the ships still seaworthy after a few years.
| THE PAUL REVERE OF CALIFORNIA An American fighter in the Mexican War rode in 1858 from Los Angeles to San Francisco in just four days to deliver a message, according to Gregory, even though the 600 mile trail was "a mere bridle path over high mountains, through deep ravines, round precipitous cliffs, across wide chaparral covered mesas, along the sea beach." John Brown AKA "Juan Flaco" was pursued by Mexican soldiers and had a horse "shot from under him, forcing him to go 30 miles afoot" to find another steed. Gosh, what a ripping adventure.
The most obvious flub is the date; by 1858 the war had been over for a dozen years - the ride of Juan Flaco took place in 1846. The rest of Gregory's account is lifted from James M. Guinn, another history book historian who specialized in Los Angeles and Southern California. Guinn wrote about the ride of Juan Flaco several times, later versions omitting some of the more questionable details such as his horse jumping a 13-foot ravine after being shot and then our hero walking 27 miles (not 30, as Gregory claimed), which makes the four-day timeline pretty implausible. Later retellings also acknowledged the well-known route was actually 460 miles, but Guinn hedged, "counting the detours...he doubtless rode 600 miles." Worse, in none of the versions - including those appearing in academic journals - did Guinn disclose much about his sources.
Had Tom Gregory looked up Bancroft's account - which was published years before any of Guinn's - he would have found a much less heroic tale along with sources listed. The remarkable ravine-jumping dying horse and 27 mile march came directly from John Brown/Juan Flaco (here's another article with his version), but his Los Angeles commander later said Brown's horse broke its leg after falling into a ravine and he only had to walk four miles to find a replacement. The trip actually took six days and the urgent message wasn't delivered until the following day, after Brown was "picked up drunk and carried to the flagship." By that time, the Americans in Los Angeles had surrendered.
| HOW SONOMA GOT ITS NAME In Gregory's telling, "Sonoma" was an Indian name meaning "valley of the moon," which was inspired by the eastern hills of the Sonoma Valley forming something like a lunar crescent. The priest who founded the local mission also gave the name "Sonoma" to the local Indian tribe. But it would have been more honest if Gregory had simply written, "no one knows."
Part of his information came from an 1850 speech by M. G. Vallejo, where the general linked Sonoma to the Valley of the Moon, which was the first time the latter name appeared anywhere. References to a "Sonoma" tribe can be found back to 1815 missionary records, eight years before the priest supposedly gave them that name. The silly crescent valley explanation (did Gregory even look at a map?) seems to be something he just made up.
Bancroft would have been no help to Gregory in this case, but he's still not exonerated; had Tom asked anyone in the UC/Berkeley anthropology department about local Indian geography they would have directed him to this paper published three years earlier. There it's suggested "Sonoma" might have been named after the "chief" of the local tribal group, à la "Chief Marin" lending his name to his Americanized homeland. Or it could be no coincidence that some Wappo people a little farther to the east used -tsonoma as a place name suffix, much like today we use -town and -ville and similar. At any rate, we still don't know where it really comes from. (This later article is also interesting reading.)
| NO HISTORY IS COMPLETE WITHOUT ETHNIC SLURS Aside from his compulsion to tell everyone about the made-up origin of "gringo," Gregory felt the need to inform us where "greaser" comes from. Most of us today think of the 1950s rock 'n' roll hoodlums homogenized by the movie Grease, but in Gregory's day and earlier it was an American slur against Hispanics.
According to Gregory, "The greaser title was first given by the Americans to the Indians. The old time wooden axle of the immigrant wagons needed greasing frequently - an attention and task not nice or agreeable - and the digger's [a racist epithet against the Indians] willingness to assume this and other humble labors around the camp of the good natured white man earned for him his name as well as occasional rations of beef."
"Greaser" was indeed an ethnic slam, but not the kind Gregory believed - it was originally an Indian put-down of the American settlers.
According to Bancroft, the "Caynomeros" - meaning the Southern Pomo of Sebastopol and Santa Rosa - watched wagons rolling into their homeland, "from which came forth human beings with dirty faces and greasy hands, the drivers pulling out greasy mattresses and with greasy hands spreading them on the ground...they called them mantecosos, greasy ones; and at the last it turned out that whenever a Caynamero spoke of any one who had come over the plains, he called him a mantecoso."
That happened in 1844-5, but the "Saxons" (as Gregory called the Americans) caught on and soon flipped it around with a vengeance. California passed a "Greaser Act" in 1855 allowing authorities to arrest anyone of "Spanish and Indian blood" on charges of being a vagabond and place them in forced labor after confiscating their property.
We could continue mining that book review for errors - for example, Sequoyah wasn't "chieftain of the Cherokees" and his name had no connection with the Sequoia genus name for the redwood tree - or we could invite Gentle Reader to jump into the book and dig up other problems. Tom Gregory's History of Sonoma county is available here for download, reading online or searching. Perhaps an enterprising college or high school history teacher would like to assign each student a random page to determine how much is factual, howling wrong or fantasy.
But now, more than a century later, Tom's version of history has wormed its way into countless books and articles. Because the latter part of the book with the biographies is an often-cited and accurate resource, authors have made the mistake of presuming the rest of the volume is trustworthy as well. Whenever researching 19th century items for this blog it's not uncommon for me to stumble across a story that seems too mythic or too silly to be completely true; often I can trace it back to Gregory, who probably made it up or was dressing up an old barroom tale as fact. Perhaps the job of writing the county history should have gone to a writer with a bit less twinkle in his eye and much less fondness for spinning yarns.
Sonoma County, Champion History Maker of Californiaby Frank L. Mulgrew
Again the boats of Sir Francis Drake are beached on the shores of Sonoma county, to allow the daring sailor to scrape the barnacles from their bottoms; the Franciscan padre is accompanied on his weary pilgrimage, which ended in Sonoma: the last mission is built in Sonoma; El Camino Real is lost in Sonoma's foothills; the Russians sail from their northern possessions in Alaska to Sonoma; the republic of California, with its bear flag emblem, is born In Sonoma; Fremont's troops halt In Sonoma after their transcontinental march; the best wines outside of Europe are pressed from Sonoma grapes; the fastest horses are bred in Sonoma; Luther Burbank is a resident — in fact, that an astonishing number of the important factors in California history either started or ended in Sonoma county is most interestingly told in a history of that section written by Tom Gregory, a native Sonoman, and published by the Historic Record company of Los Angeles.
Gregory in his introduction confesses surprise that in the collecting of material for his history he found the historic trails of Sonoma interwoven with those of the state and often with the broader road to empires and monarchies. The reader will share this surprise and thank the writer for the delightful guidance over those picturesque and romantic highways and byways.
"Sonoma - Valley of the moon." We first learn that this soft Spanish word is in reality not Spanish at all, but the Indian name, older than history, for the most eastern vale of this many valleyed county. Writes the historian: "The red Chocuyen looked over that graceful line of level land sweeping from the farthest horn of its crescent in the Napa hills around by the circling rampart of northern peak to its western point where a spur of the great Coast range dips under the tides of the San Pablo. To his nature trained mind was that perfect lunar shape - its arc to the north, and to the south its chord - a wide frontage on the big inland water. And he called it Sonoma." Padre Jose Altimira, who came to this "most gifted land under the sun," called the Indian tribe he found in the valley by the name, which was pleasant to his musical Spanish ear. Later the pueblo which grew about his mission received the name, and finally it was given to the "noble territory bordering the wide waterways of the state and fronting 20 league on the Pacific" - Sonoma county.
Gregory's research has been thorough, his study comprehensive. He quotes tribute for Sonoma from noted authorities, from Padre Altimira to Fra Elbertus and records the acquisition of history makers from the landing of Sir Francis Drake, "that jolly pirate," to Luther Burbank. "the wizard." He tells of the geologic origin of the country, of the mountains and geysers and peaks and plains, but in no coldly scientific description. It is rather with the poet's appreciation of nature's wonders that he approaches his subject, and romance and rare humor, and the historian's gift of perspective and true proportion are evidenced throughout in this true story of a wonderful county.
"Sonoma," writes the historian, "found for herself a place within natural barriers of hill and bay, stream and sea, during those distant days when mighty terrestrial forces were heaving hemispheres into form. And this amphitheater of virile vale and mesa awaited through the unwritten savage years for the coming of the day when these acres would yield their wealth to the home building Saxon."
However, In this God made valley, which we are assured has "never felt a drought," there were stirring times between the Indian occupancy and the coming of the Saxon; and if the latter was the first fully to develop its agricultural and other resources, there were many others who appreciated the land and to reach it cut these trails, which often led from European thrones and the stirring events of old world history.
Long before Luther Burbank settled in Sonoma and sent the fame of his magic throughout the scientific world wo find the threads of interest connected. Great names appear - Napoleon, through the famous "gun of Austerlitz" which was part of the Russian fort at Ross and later saw active service in the fighting history of the state; also through the brig "Natalie," in which the Corslcan made his escape from Elba. The Natalie was wrecked on her way to Sonoma from Monterey, where she had landed the first batch of colonists from Spain. Then we find complications between the thrones of Russia and Spain over the settlement at Fort Ross, in which a famous czar and king might have clashed forces but for the beneficent entanglements of red tape. Again, in 1579, Queen Elizabeth was presented with the land that was to be Sonoma, by Sir Francis Drake, flrst circumnavigator of the globe.
"Drake," writes the author, "came hurrying along this shore with two millions of Spanish gold and several millions of leaking holes in his weather beaten and battle worn little ship, the Golden Hind, and while the carpenter on the beach was pumping the Pacific ocean out of the craft he made out the title deeds and calmly presented the whole coast to Queen Elizabeth. Nothing small about Francis!"
But "he of England - traveler in every land and sailor on the seven seas...a man who has made more ocean history than any other individual in his day" - mended hie ship and after but a 26 days' stay ran the gauntlet with his cargo of Spanish gold and, rounding the coast of Africa, arrived home and was knighted by the queen in return for the dollars and dominions he presented her. Although he had set up a pre-emption notice and cairn, no one ever came from England to "prove up" on the claim of New Albion, as Drake called it.
Captain George Vancouver, another wandering Englishman, came sailing down the coast, and but for the martial entanglements of his nation at home, there might have been another English claim. None of the Saxons was destined to reap the harvests of the fertile Sonoma, but the hardy Americans who came later from the inland.
The Russians founded a settlement and fort on the coast, which from "El Fuerte de los Rusos" became Fort Ross. Padre Altlmira founded the Mission Solano, "the last bead of the rosary of missions." The Greek and the Roman cross were raised together in Sonoma, and, although the czar and the king of Spain were, figuratively speaking, at swords' points, and the commandante at San Francisco had orders to "drive the Rusos into the sea," the cross and not the sword prevailed, and when Padre Altlmira officiated at the first service at the new church at San Francisco de Solano, the edifice contained many articles of decoration donated by the Russians at Fort Ross.
Cupid also defied Mars in these early days of Spanish and Russian occupancy. A beautiful but sad story, one of the real romances splendidly told by Gregory, is of Concepcion and her Russian lover. Count Nicholi Petrovich Razanoff [sp - Nikolai Petrovich Rozanoff], the governor of Alaska, who, in 1806, sailed Into San Francisco bay, "his ship filled with articles for the trade and his crew filled with scurvy," was the hero of this romance.
"His first reception was neither cordial nor commercial," writes Gregory, "the peculiar trade restrictions of the Spaniards prohibiting intercourse with foreigners, although the people and padres needed the goods. Razanoff could not have bought for cash, as the Spanish port regulations did not taboo Russian gold, but unfortunately he waa without the coin of any realm. But Love, whose laugh at locksmiths has long been a proverb, unlocked the port of San Francisco. The count, while dancing attendance on Commandante Jose Arguello, trying to work that official into a more commercial attitude, met Donna Concepcion Arguello, and the old, old drama of the heart was played. The beautiful California girl took up the work that diplomacy had dropped. She consented to marry her noble Russian lover and the stern old Don was not proof against the coaxing of his daughter. Neither was Governor Arrillaga at Monterey, for it seemed that this fascinating Espanol-Americana had her own way in both the capital and the chief port of the territory.
"When Razanoff sailed with his new cargo for Alaska he parted from Concepcion forever, as on his way across Siberia to St. Petersburg, where he was to get the permission of the czar to wed the Spanish girl, he was thrown from his horse. Before fully recovering from his injuries he attempted to complete the journey, and from the relapse died on the road. It was years before Concepcion. awaiting at San Francisco, learned of his death. She then joined the order of the Sisters of Visitacion, and after a long life devoted to noble work died at Benicia. Bret Harte, the California poet, has placed In tender verse this historical tale of a woman's waiting years when
Lone beside the deep embrasures, where the brazen cannon are
Did she wait her promised bridegroom and the answer of the czar;
Watched the harbor head with longing, half in faith and half in doubt,
Every day some hope was kindled, flickered, faded and went out.
"The Russian settlement at Fort Ross was a two acre inclosure, the ingenious construction of the walls of which showed the frontier skill of this sturdy, self-sustaining people. The stockade was of thick planks, the lower ends mortised and the heavy timbers placed under the ground, and the upper ends, 12 feet above, were again mortised, every mortise beingr keyed with a wooden peg. Inside, at one of the angles, was the Greek Catholic chapel, two of the walls being a part of the inclosure walls. They were strongly constructed and were portholed for cannon, as was the entire stockade. Two small domes surmounted this church, one circular and the other pentagonal. A chime of bells called the farmers from the field and the hunters from the sea at matin and vesper time.
"The location, from a military point of view, was an admirable selection, as the 10, and afterward 20, guns of the fort commanded not only the land approaches to the town, but protected the shipping in the little harbor, which was itself a cozy cove, lying under a high northern shore, a defense against the fierce storms sweeping down the coast. The founding of this settlement in 1812 was celebrated with gun salutes, mass and feasting.
"In the cove below the fort the pioneer fleet of the Pacific coast was born. These ships were constructed of Sonoma lumber. Among these vessels were the Boldakof, a 200 ton brig, constructed at a cost of $60,000; the Volga, 160 tons, and the Kiakhta. 200 tons. Besides these several boats and launches were constructed for the Spanish at San Francisco. The first of the vessels were built of oak, but the Russians, becoming better acquainted with the pine and redwood around them as lumber material, used that timber in their yard. These were the first ships made of redwood.
"But in time the Russians found the fur fishing growing harder, the seal herds becoming thinner each season, and though industrious and frugal, they were mere novices in farming and wore destined to move out of the land. The prior claimants to this part of Sonoma were wasting their time and claim, and "meantime the permanent possessor of the land and sea was working his ox team across the plains. The Saxon was coming."
Gregory deals interestingly with the life and customs of all the early settlers of Sonoma, the Digger Indian, the early Spanish at the missions, the inhabitants of the pueblos after the secularization of this missions, the Russians at Ross and the Americans - "the gringos." He explains the curious origin of this term and that of "greaser" as applied by the Americans to the so called native Callfornians.
"The word gringo has a peculiar origin," he writes. "The song, 'Green Grow. the Rushes O," was popular at the time, and the Mexicans, hearing the American frequently singing it, caught the words "green grow" and applied them to the Yankees, hence 'gringo.' The greaser title was first given by the Americans to the Indians. The old time wooden axle of the immigrant wagons needed greasing frequently - an attention and task not nice or agreeable - and the digger's willingness to assume this and other humble labors around the camp of the good natured white man earned for him his name as well as occasional rations of beef."
The author deals with his chapters by topics, and every chapter is teeming with interest. His passages are sometimes lively and humorous, and he has rare descriptive powers that take the reader to the picture. It is the interesting story of California and Sonoma from the viewpoint of an interesting person. Some stirring incidents that have been overlooked by historians have been noted in this book, and many of the descriptions of the life of the picturesque and pleasure loving Spanish should inspire fictionists to deal with this period of western history. Here is an incident from the chapter on "A Free and Easy People":
"One of the most wonderful rides in history - though it has not been told In verse nor set to music - was made between September 24 and 28, 1858, from Los Angeles to Yerba Buena by an American named John Brown. He was known among the Californians as 'Juan Flaco' (Lean John) and was sent by Lieutenant Gillespie, U. S. A., who was hard pressed by the hostile California forces, to Commodore Stockton for reinforcements. Brown made Monterey, 460 miles, in 52 hours, without sleep. He expected to find there the fleet, but Stockton had sailed, and after sleeping three hours the sturdy rider completed the remaining 140 miles of his great Marathon in the same speed and delivered his call for help. It was not a broad highway like Sheridan's, nor was the road as smooth as that of the ride of Paul Revere, but was a mere bridle path over high mountains, through deep ravines, round precipitous cliffs, across wide chaparral covered mesas, along the sea beach. He was always dodging the enemy, harassed and pursued. Riding shoulder to shoulder with death night and day, losing several horses — one shot from under him, forcing him to go 30 miles afoot, carrying his spurs and riata until he could commandeer another mount — Juan Flaco rode on and on, showing that a California man on a California mustang has outridden the storied riders of the world."
Gregory gives the full story of the Spanish and Mexican troubles over California and of the coming of the Americans, paying honor where honor is due always and giving glowing tribute to General Vallejo, whom he calls "the premier Californian" and to whom he devotes an entire chapter of the history.
"His splendid personality is stamped on every league of these vegas and mesas," writes the author of Vallejo, and goes on to tell of his splendid work among the Indians, his fine hospitality and keen foresight and judgment. He tells how this great man, after the secularization of the missions, kept the neophytes from returning to a state of nomadic savagery, as they did in other parts of California; how he took care of their property, cattle and land and preserved the good that had been brought to the country by the missions.
The author tells of the secularization showing how this was always contemplated by the Spanish government - before the missionaries, with their retinues, were sent out into the wilderness. Here is an order issued in the year 1773 by Viceroy Bucarili [sp - Bucareli] to the commandante at San Diego and Monterey: "When it shall happen that a mission is to be formed into a pueblo or village the commandante shall proceed to the civil and economical government which, according to the laws, is observed by other villages of this kingdom, secular clergy shall attend to the spiritual wants of these newly formed curacies; the missionary monks relieved from the converted settlements, shall proceed to the conversion of other heathen."
There are many amusing incidents in the history, and the reading of the book, voluminous and complete though it is, will never be found tedious. The author tells of compulsory church attendance with the punishment of "the stocks," and of some humorous decisions of the local judges In dealing with the primitive people.
Gregory tells of the deeds and describes with delightful intimacy the personality of the history makers of California - Fremont. Sloat, Sutter, Vallejo and the early Americans and Spanish-American families, as well as the modern great Sonomans, among whom he numbers Burbank. His chapter on Burbank is a classic, and won the approval of the wizard himself, who said it was the best story of his career that has been written. The author's researches have at times inspired him to poetry and there are many noble verses in the volume. The best of these is dedicated to Gifford Pinchot It begins, "Sequoyah, cultured Chieftain of the Cherokees."
Tom Gregory, trained newspaper man, approached his subject with the zeal of the native Californian, naturally appreciative of romance, and has accomplished not only a history of his own native land, but a volume of California literature that will live because of intrinsic interest, its captivating style, its authenticity. The history wil find a permanent place in the archives and will carry permanent honor to many notable figures of the west, who with their exploits, might otherwise have gone into oblivion. The volume is illustrated with portraits of prominent Sonomans, steei engravings and full page photographs of scenes and picturesque bits of the country.
- San Francisco Call, August 4, 1912
GRE-GORY MADE MEMBER VIVID IMAGINATION CLUB
The comet [Halley's Comet - ed.] is now appearing in the western sky, minus its candal appendage. We are assured of this by Professor Thomasini Gre-gory, comotoligist of the Tar Flat observatory, who has been keeping the public posted from time to time regarding the movements of the comet. The professor opines that the shedding of its tail by the comet is due to natural causes, the separation being due to friction when the earth passed through the tail.
The comet is now having fashioned a tail of latest mode, according to Mr. Gre-Gory, intended exclusively for evening wear. It will have three rows of tucks on the end nearest the earth, edged with a filmy lace of the milky way pattern, while up the center will run a single row of star applique. The tail will be looped up on either side by a rosette of young moons.
The old tail, the professor claims, after being separated from the comet, settled over about Occidental. This caused a golden glow over in the western sky several evenings ago, which astronomers of lesser note mistook for a display of the aurora borealis.
Mr. Gre-Gory will head an expedition for the recovery of this tale, which he hopes to place on exhibition in the public library in the rear future, for the benefit of the school children. He will also make a chemical analysis of the tail.
The Vivid Imagination Club has elected Professor Gre-Gory to an honorary life membership.
The progress of Professor Gre-Gory's investigations is being watched with considerable interest.
- Santa Rosa Republican, May 23, 1910
HISTORIAN GREGORY TO WRITE MORE HISTORY
Tom Gregory, humorist, essayist, scientist, politician, poet and all-around writer of remarkable things, having finished the history of this county, will board the Southern Pacific passenger train this morning bound for Suisun. There he will remain for a few weeks gathering material for a history of Solano and Yolo counties. Mr. Gregory is employed by the Historic Record Company of Los Angeles. The matter for the Sonoma work is in the hands of the publication house in Chicago and will be issued soon.
- Press Democrat, July 27, 1911
COUNTY HISTORY HANDSOME BOOKFine Publication Compiled by Tom Gregory and Issued by History Record Company of Los Angeles
The "History of Sonoma County," a handsome volume of more than 1,100 pages, published by the History Record Company of Los Angeles, has made its appearance, the first shipment having arrived yesterday from Chicago, where the books was printed and bound.
Outside of the biographical sketches, which are accompanied by many handsome steel and halftone engravings, the above history was compiled by Tom Gregory, the well-known Santa Rosa writer and newspaper man. More than 250 pages are devoted to this historical portion of the work, which is of a high order throughout and carefully prepared from the most authentic data as well as from personal investigation and research. A feature of the work is the wit and humor flashing out here and there, which relieves it of the tediousness sometimes noted in historical writings. The tracing of Sonoma county's history begins with the earliest recorded happenings, and is carried down to the present time. A fine steel engraving of Mr. Gregory occupies the first place in the book, and in his preface the author says:
"When I sought to collect material for a story of Sonoma, I soon found myself reaching out into the history proper of California. Every trail leading to this county runs back into the earlier times of the state. The Spanish-American settlement of Sonoma was planned in the City of Mexico...The legislative events occurring in Monterey were soon manifest in Sonoma...The various governments sitting at various capitals marked Sonoma a key position on the line of the northern frontier...When Fremont, advised by Benton at Washington, collected the American settlers for the first strike, they struck at Sonoma...At an earlier day that jolly pirate, Sir Francis Drake, came hurrying along the shore...and made out the title deed and calmly presented the whole coast to Queen Elizabeth...For thirty years the double-headed eagle of the Czar from the palisades of Fort Ross Screamed defiance out of his two throats at his brother bird of Mexico...Then in the rare Indian Valley of the Moon the Padre Pathfinder planted the cross and called to prayer...If this indifferent story of Sonoma were worthy it would be dedicated to the greatest historical character him who sleeps at Lachryma Montis." The closing reference is of course to the late General Vallejo.
Persons unfamiliar with such work have no conception of the immense amount of labor and research required in the preparation of such a volume. A force of men under the able direction of A. H. Preston, manager of the Historical Record Company, has been actively engaged for something like two years in collecting and preparing the material required while the work of printing and binding alone has occupied several months. A fine history of the Bennett Valley Grange, prepared by the late G. N. Whittaker, is a feature of the work. In addition to the large number of men and women prominently identified with the growth and development of the county, some fine views illustrating the important industries and the general character of the country are shown. The work is a highly credible one in every way, and a valuable addition to the state's historic records.
- Press Democrat, December 13, 1911
"SONOMA COUNTY, THE GREAT HISTORY MAKER"
In the San Francisco Call on Sunday appeared an exciting half-page review or write-up of Tom Gregory's "History of Sonoma County," recently issued by a Los Angeles publishing firm. The article was written by Frank Mulgrew, one of the Call's reportorial staff, and being himself a Sonoman, the merits of this imperial county are not lost.
The subject of the write-up is significant, as it is, "Sonoma County, Champion History Maker of California." Both the historian and his reviewer hold that this county contains more real history than any other county in the state. However, Mr. Gregory has written, in his well known comprehensive and readable style, much interesting history into the county and into the book. The well known classic Gregorian face accompanies the review. Hundreds of persons have secured a volume of the history and are decidedly pleased with it. Mr. Gregory was the identical man to write the history of Sonoma county, and the company made no mistake in securing his valuable services for that purpose.
- Santa Rosa Republican, August 5, 1912